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Question 1:       Finance

 

Assume that the costs associated with the purchase of EHR software are as follows:

Purchase price: $25,000 per provider

One time implementation fee: $10,000 per provider

Annual maintenance fee: 18% of the purchase price applied after the first year

Estimate the ROI (%) at the end of five years for a group of 15 providers. Assume that the only monetary benefit considered is that each physician will earn $44,000 as incentive (one time only).

 

Question 2:           Psychology

 

 

Capstone Quiz

 

Answer the following multiple choice questions by highlighting the answer. There is one correct answer per question.

 

  1. Which historical perspective stated that psychologists should study the different components of the mind independently, because to understand how the conscious mind works, we must understand all of its individual parts completely?

 

  1. Structuralism
  2. Functionalism
  3. Behaviorism
  4. Gestalt
  5. Psychodynamic

 

  1. Edward Titchener used a method for studying the mind that became popular during the Structuralist period. The method, called _____, required trained participants to report their conscious mental experiences to the investigator. For example, if a person was angry, they would report all of their experiences during the time they were angry.

 

  1. empiricism
  2. functionalism
  3. contemplation
  4. introspection
  5. conscientiousness

 

  1. A potential problem with ___________ research is _____________.

 

  1. longitudinal; cohort differences
  2. cross-sectional; subject attrition
  3. cross-sectional; cohort differences
  4. longitudinal; random assignment
  5. cross-sectional; maturation

 

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  2. Research by _____________ legitimized psychological science when it became the first psychological research presented as evidence to the United States Supreme Court.

 

  1. Muzafer Sherif
  2. Irving Janis
  3. Mamie Clark
  4. Phillip Zimbardo
  5. Kurt Lewin

 

  1. To determine whether changing one variable like education will produce changes in another like income, we must conduct _____________________ research.

 

  1. survey
  2. correlational
  3. experimental
  4. statistical
  5. basic

 

  1. Mary is studying the effect of high blood sugar on intelligence test performance. Which of these might be her hypothesis?

 

  1. People should not eat high sugar foods prior to IQ testing.
  2. High sugar foods increase energy and improve IQ test performance.
  3. People who eat high sugar foods before testing will have lower scores on an IQ test than people who do not.
  4. Roughly 75% of people had lower IQ test scores after eating high sugar snacks right before testing.
  5. Individuals should not be given high sugar snacks prior to IQ testing.

 

  1. Which of the following research methods would be most effective in demonstrating whether the presence of others improves our performance of a task?

 

  1. An experiment
  2. A correlational study
  3. A survey
  4. A field study
  5. An historical study

 

  1. Which of the following psychological studies would you expect to have similar results cross-culturally?

 

  1. Milgram’s study of obedience to authority
  2. Asch’s conformity study
  3. Study of the symptoms of mental illness
  4. Study of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  5. Study of parenting styles

 

  1. According to the APA Ethical Standards, psychologists must inform participants of the nature of the research; and that they are free to participate, decline to participate, or withdraw from the research at any time. These requirements, among others, are necessary to ensure the participants’ ______.

 

  1. anonymity
  2. risk level
  3. informed consent
  4. debriefing
  5. risk/benefit ratio

 

  1. Making an ethical decision involves

 

  1. simply applying a clear and definitive set of guidelines for ethical research
  2. deciding that an ethical decision is effective if it makes you happy
  3. identifying what ethical guidelines are relevant in a situation and what is at stake for all parties involved
  4. maintaining the anonymity of the researchers
  5. maintaining the anonymity of the participants

 

  1. According to the APA Ethical Standards, who is ultimately responsible for the ethical conduct of research done in psychology?

 

  1. The Institutional Review Board
  2. The individual researchers
  3. The sponsoring institution, such as the university
  4. The assistants who test the participants
  5. The funding agency

 

 

 

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Question 3:           Psychology

 

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words to either prompt 1 or 2:

 

Prompt 1:

Identify a current social problem. If you had unlimited resources, how would you go about studying that problem?

 

Prompt 2:

Congratulations! You’ve made it to week 6, which means that you’ve successfully submitted your research proposal. I hope that you all feel a sense of accomplishment as that is no easy task (but you already know this, right?).

 

For this discussion question, I’d like for all of you to share what you found to be the most challenging part of the proposal and to discuss how you overcame it.

 

 

Question 4:           Sociology

 

Scholarly Book Review – The final component of this course is for you to read one of the assigned books, Out-of-Control Criminal Justice, and write a scholarly book review. For this assignment, you must cite at least five peer-reviewed articles, not books, in your review. The articles students cite should be relevant and timely (e.g. no older than say 2010, unless they are considered to ‘classics’). Your scholarly book review must be between 2,250 to 2,700 words. For this assignment, you need to do more than merely provide merely provide a synopsis of the book. Rather, provide a scholarly analysis of the book and explain what, if anything, it contributes to our understanding of criminal justice policy.

 

Question 5:           Marketing

 

Give step by step instructions on creating a sales pipeline. Include different categories of pipeline, how they are measured and levels of involvement for each. 1 or 1 1/2 page without the reference page. APA times new roman #12

 

Question 6:           Sociology

 

Using the textbook and the South University Online Library, write a 1500-word paper using APA standards that focuses on the following: Interview two different individuals regarding their positions in society. Analyze their responses regarding: Identify each person’s class, race, and gender, supporting your work with the text and/or outside resources. What role has class, race, and gender played in their lives? How do you see these stratifies as playing a role, even if the interviewee is unaware of it? Apply one of the sociological perspectives to the individuals’ lives. Why did you choose this particular perspective? How does it explain each person’s life and life choices? What are some of the benefits and limitations to using interview as a research methodology? Analyze each person’s specific components of culture and relate them to his/her stratified position in society.

 

Question 7:           History

 

1.After reading the Four Roles in Social Movement handout, identify which of the four roles best describes you and your involvement in social movement/change and why. 250 words 2.after reading the 8 Stages of Successful Social Movements handout, identify how each of these 8 stages will be or have been incorporated into your social movement/change. This should not exceed 2 pages in length. 3.Create a 1 page infographic which will describe how to increase social awareness for your identified movement/change. Explain and evaluate social, political and historical milestones for this social movement/change that reinforce trends as they relate to human services’ role in advocating for individuals, families and communities in need. Make sure your infographic is informative and visually appealing. (SLO 4) 4. Conduct research using scholarly resources Database and/or other outside resources to answer the following questions: Compare and contrast the Mexican American/Chicano Movement, the African Hire an online tutor Spring 2020? https://homeworknest.com/  has all the answers. Online Professional tutoring tailored for college students studying online. 2020 spring revision materials , Timed quizzes, biology quizzes, Us History assignment help. Dissertation, thesis help at cheap prices. Give your online courses grade A boost. Homework nest is the ultimate answer. register today. https://www.homeworknest.com/ and get all types of assignment help today. Our Expert tutors are waiting for you. The cheapest essay writing service in 2020. Ace my Homework is a question asked by many college and university students. we got them all answers at Homework Nest

American Civil Rights Movement, and the Stonewall Movement. Discuss the effectiveness of each movement, its current status, and future goals and initiatives. Additionally, choose one of the movements above and identify strategies to address marginalization and social stratification for the identified population in support of social change and social justice initiatives. (SLO 3) This assignment should include a minimum of 2 related scholarly resources. This essay should not exceed 4 pages in length. 5.Historical Perspective Part 4 will be the historical overview of your Social Movement/Change guided project. In this section, provide a timeline of at least 3 and a maximum of 5 significant events associated with the implementation of the movement/change. Part 5: Annotated Bibliography Begin your annotated bibliography and include three scholarly resources related to your social movement/change. Conduct research from the Springfield College Library Database and/or other outside sources.

 

Question 8:           Education

 

pick one of the 8 levels of psychosocial development. Upload a PowerPoint containing a movie clip from 20 seconds to 120 second Demonstrating your chosen level of psychosocial development. 3-4 slides only

 

Question 9:           English

 

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ca94/5980c84bf0d041180f4bcbc53acfec953d86.pdf?_ga=2.181180903.1552378089.1582118538-163449460.1582118538

 

Read this article .

 

Answer these two Questions:

1-What is the main topic of this research?why was this worth investigating?

 

2- how were data analyzed?what finding were produced .

 

Pleased put the question and answer below it . Keep it very short , as long as you answer no words limit.

Question 10:         Health Care

 

Create a newsletter to the “parents” in your classroom highlighting the important aspects of the health lesson you are preparing to present to their children.  IMPORTANT:  This newsletter is announcing to the parents the upcoming lesson you are going to give to their children BASED ON THE HEALTH LESSON PLAN YOU CREATED EARLIER IN THIS MODULE. This must be done in Microsoft WORD.  Include in your newsletter:

  1. The topic
  2. Why this topic is important enough for you to create a lesson on it and deliver it to their children
  3. The classroom policy that is either being reinforced through the lesson or is being created from the lesson
  4. How you hope the parents will reinforce the policy in their home environment

 

Create YOUR newsletter using Microsoft WORD.  Remember, this newsletter relates to the Health Lesson Plan you have already created!

 

Question 11:         Science

 

Explain where in the Citric Acid Cycle a hypothetical defect of an enzyme could occur that would decrease the overall ATP production.

Pick a specific enzyme in the citric acid cycle and discuss what would happen if it could not do its job – focusing on atp production. If this enzyme is defective, what happens to the levels of that enzyme’s product(s)? How does this impact the cycle as a whole? Can the cycle continue or does it stop? What happens to etc and at production.

 

 

 

Question 12:         Finance

 

To be completed in excel file with all questions answered with showing work.

Sandomir and Rasia Kolbe

1.Sandomir and Rasia Kolbe, ages fifty eight and fifty seven respectively, and their three grown children, recently attended Sandomir’s father’s funeral in Poland. They realized that they did not know the effect of federal estate tax on their own estate, nor did they have any legal documentation supporting end-of-life medical or financial decisions. So, upon returning home, Rasia called her mother for a recommendation regarding estate planning help. Rasia’s mother suggested an attorney for the legal documents and her own financial planner for other estate planning needs. For the purposes of this problem, assume all family members are citizens of the United States. Financial information for the Kolbe family follows:

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Based on the Kolbes’ financial information, the lawyer and the financial planner jointly made the following recommendations:

Recommendation 1: Establish testamentary trusts for both Sandomir and Rasia.

Recommendation 2: Retitle assets in preparation of funding trusts.

Recommendation 3: Transfer life insurance ownership to the three children.

To assist the Kolbes with their estate planning, answer the following questions.

a.What type of trust(s) might be recommended in keeping with the clients’ desires of minimizing estate taxes, maximizing privacy, and easing asset ownership transfers?

b.How might the assets be retitled to ensure that all trusts can be adequately funded?

c.What are some of the challenges associated with transferring ownership of the insurance policies to the children? Describe some of the problems with the current life insurance designations. What other strategies can also be considered to alleviate any potential estate, gift, or income tax issues?

d.Besides completing wills and trust documents, what other legal documents should the Kolbes consider?

 

Jane and John Williams

2.Assume the following estate planning information for Jane and her spouse John.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a.If Jane were to pass away first, what is her tax liability before the marital deduction?

b.If John were to pass away first, what is his tax liability before the marital deduction?

c.Using the portable estate exemption, how much of their combined estate is taxable today?

d.If Jane and John fail to take advantage of the portable estate exemption by forgetting to file IRS Form 706 at the death of the first spouse, will there be a tax liability this year, assuming the second spouse also passes shortly thereafter? Describe an estate planning strategy that can be used to minimize any estate tax liability in this situation.

Brenda Chatterjee

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3.Brenda Chatterjee is wealthy, single, and generous. During the previous year she made the following gifts:

  • Gift of stock to the local art museum (a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization): $245,000
  • College tuition payment for niece: $29,000 made directly to the institution
  • Medical bills for elderly neighbor: $18,000 paid directly to the hospital
  • Home down payment gift to daughter: $30,000 paid directly to the mortgage lender
  • Cash gift to son: $17,000
  • Use the gift tax rates shown below as a guide to answer the following questions:

a.What is the total amount of taxable gifts in 2018?

b.What is Brenda’s gift tax liability in 2018?

c.Assuming a unified credit of $4,425,800, what alternative does Brenda have in terms of paying the gift tax liability?

 

Malek and Nelda Goetz

4.Malek and Nelda Goetz live in Nevada. They are working with you to deal with several estate planning questions and concerns. Use your estate planning skills to answer the following questions:

a.Nelda read that it is a good idea to have a power of attorney in place to help deal with incapacitation issues. She is worried, however, that providing someone power over the family’s financial situation now could lead to unnecessary problems and confusion. What type of POA can Malek and Nelda establish that will address her worries? What needs to occur to trigger this type of POA?

b.Malek and Nelda were married in Nevada. In fact, they have lived their entire life in Nevada. If Malek were to pass away, with the family home valued at $500,000 at Malek’s death, what will be Nelda’s new basis in the property? Assume the basis in the home is $100,000.

c.Avoiding probate is a primary concern for Malek. Which of the following assets will be subject to probate?

  • A personal residence owned JTWROS with a child.
  • Life insurance proceeds paid to a non-insured beneficiary.
  • Property titled as tenants in common.
  • Brokerage account.

d.Malek would like to reduce the value of the family gross estate by transferring ownership of the family’s second home to his daughter; however, he is worried that he and Nelda may need to live in the house in the event they sell their primary residence (the primary residence is under contract for sale). Malek and Nelda should consider establishing what type of trust to deal with this potentiality?

e.Nelda owns a small business with three other individuals. The business is growing and profitable. Nelda would like to establish a buy-sell agreement to ensure business continuity. What type of agreement should she establish, with her business partners, if she hope that each business owner will purchase life insurance on the life of each other business owner?

f.At what age can Malek’s son elect to access assets held in a Section 2503(b) trust (the son is named as the beneficiary)?

 

 

 

Question 13:         Psychology

 

Are you able to do the online quiz? Click on the link below. Use the table below as a resource to complete the Research Multimedia Activity. Send a screen shot of the results to me.

 

Are you able to do this or no?

https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/materials/ip/curriculum/social-sciences/psych665/week-1-activity/story.html

Use the table below as a resource to complete the Research Multimedia Activity.

 

 

Number High Quality Research Attributes
1 The research is based on the work of others.
2 The research can be replicated.
3 The research is generalizable to other settings.
4 The research is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.
5 The research is doable.
6 The research generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.
7 The research is incremental.

 

8 The research is an apolitical activity that should be undertaken for the betterment of society.

 

 

Reference

 

Salkind, N. J. (2012). Exploring research (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

 

 

Question 14:            General Question

Part 1 Due Week 7 and worth 100 points Imagine that you are a financial manager researching investments for your client. Think of a friend or a family member as a client. Define her or his characteris

Part 1 Due Week 7 and worth 100 points

Imagine that you are a financial manager researching investments for your client. Think of a friend or a family member as a client. Define her or his characteristics and goals such as an employee or employer, relatively young (less than 40 years) or close to retirement, having some savings/property, a risk taker or risk averter, etc. Next, use Nexis Uni at the Strayer University library, located at Nexis Uni, click on “Company Dossier” to research the stock of any U.S. publicly traded company that you may consider as an investment opportunity for your client. Your investment should align with your client’s investment goals. (Note: Please ensure that you are able to find enough information about this company in order to complete this assignment. You will create an appendix, in which you will insert related information.)

Your final financial research report will be 6 to 8 pages long and be completed in two parts as noted below. This assignment requires you to use at least five quality academic resources and cover the following topics:

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  • Rationale for choosing the company in which to invest
  • Ratio analysis
  • Stock price analysis
  • Recommendations

Refer to the following resources to assist with completing your assignment:

Stock Selection

  • Forbes: “Six rules to follow when picking stocks”
  • CNN Money: “Stocks: Investing in stocks”
  • The Motley Fool: “13 steps to investing foolishly”
  • Seeking Alpha: “The Graham And Dodd Method For Valuing Stocks”
  • Investopedia: “Guide to Stock-Picking Strategies”
  • Seeking Alpha: “Get Your Smart Beta Here! Dividend Growth Stocks As ‘Strategic Beta’ Investments”

Market and Company Information

  • S. Securities and Exchange Commission: “Market structure”
  • Yahoo! Finance
  • Mergent Online (Note: This resource is also available through the Strayer Learning Resource Center.)
  • Seeking Alpha (Note: This is also available through the Android or iTunes App store.)
  • Morningstar (Note: You can create a no-cost Basic Access account.)
  • Research Hub, located in the left menu of your course in Blackboard

Part 1 Due Week 7 (1 to 2 pages)

  1. Provide a rationale for the stock that you selected, indicating the significant economic, financial, and other factors that led you to consider this stock.
  2. Suggest the primary reasons why the selected stock is a suitable investment for your client. Include a description of your client’s profile.
  3. Just list five resources you’ll use to complete this assignment and begin to build your reference list. Remember you must use at least five quality academic resources for the final assignment.

Part 2 Due Week 9 (6 to 8 pages including #1 and #2 from Part 1)

  1. Include your rationale, primary reasons for stock selection, and client’s profile from Part 1, making any revisions based upon Part 1 feedback if applicable.
  2. Select any five financial ratios that you have learned about in the text. Analyze the past 3 years of the selected financial ratios for the company; you may obtain this information from the company’s financial statements. Determine the company’s financial health. (Note: Suggested ratios include, but are not limited to, current ratio, quick ratio, earnings per share, and price earnings ratio.)
  3. Based on your financial review, determine the risk level of the stock from your investor’s point of view. Indicate key strategies that you may use in order to minimize these perceived risks.
  4. Provide your recommendations of this stock as an investment opportunity. Support your rationale with resources, such as peer-reviewed articles, material from the Strayer University Library, and reviews by market analysts.

 

Question 15:         Physics

 

PSY 635 Week 4 Quiz

Qualitative Research Quiz

 

A person through whom a researcher gains access to a group, community, or organization is known as a(n) _____.

A defining feature of _____ is that this method always aims to uncover previously unquestioned assumptions about the nature of the world and reality and to consider the possible consequences of these assumptions.

Discourse analysis is a _____ approach, which means that it works on the premise that the use of language allows people to negotiate meanings and bring concepts into reality.

Using more than one method to verify findings is called _____.

Grounded theory studies often use a sampling strategy that continues to develop throughout the analysis, which is called _____.

A characteristic of _____ is resistance to pre-existing knowledge.

 

Qualitative researchers use _____ to capture ideas, interpretations, and responses to the data during the study.

 

Grounded theory uses data collection techniques from another qualitative research method, _____.

 

The sampling strategy in which the researcher recruits people who are easy to reach is called _____.

 

The _____ approach to narrative analysis uses rich descriptions of people in their accustomed surroundings.

 

Question 16:         Health Care

 

Pediatric week 4 Discussion 1

Do you recommend a limited or an involved use of antibiotics in treatment of these diseases and other unconfirmed bacterial illnesses and why? What are the standards regarding the use of antibiotics in pediatric population, and what assessment findings would warrant prescribing an antibiotic for Asthma symptoms?

Do the etiology, diagnosis, and management of a child who is wheezing vary according to the child’s age? Why or why not? Which objective of the clinical findings will guide your diagnosis? Why? When is a chest x-ray indicated in this case?

 

 

 

Question 17:         Health Care

 

Potential Matches:
1 :  Foundational science for informatics that looks at how the human mind works
2 :  Emerging field of study that focuses upon how information is processed both in the human mind and the computer
3 :  Knowledge applied in a practical manner
4 :  Field or application that attempts to capture human thought processes and intelligence
5 :  Longitudinal record of one’s health and treatment interventions
6 :  Foundational science for informatics that looks at the application and use of information and knowledge in organizations and the interface between people, organizations, and information systems
7 : An initiative to improve healthcare quality, efficiency, and effectiveness by making healthcare information available when and where it is needed through technology, standards, interoperability, governance, and cooperation
Answer:
3     : Wisdom
1     : Cognitive science
5    : Electronic health record
7     : National Health Information Infrastructure
2     : Cognitive informatics
6     : Information science

 

Question 18:         Health Care

Question 1

Choose the best definition or example for the informatics key term in the question.
What   is         Data?

Processed information which places relationships in context

Correct!

Raw     fact      without            meaning in itself

Process which uses information to make decisions electronically

Unit of memory equal to one keystroke

Question 2

Choose the best definition or example for the informatics key term in the question.
What is an Electronic Medical Record?
Correct!

An online record of treatment, typically limited to one episode, whether that might be an emergency room or clinic visit or a hospital stay

Longitudinal record of one’s health and treatment interventions

Using software to sort through data to discover patterns and establish relationships

Web browser-based login accessible data, software, and hardware

Question 3

Choose the best definition or example for the informatics key term in the question.
What is Knowledge Work?
Correct Answer

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Process that generates information and knowledge as a product

You Answered

Foundational science for informatics that looks at the application and use of information and knowledge in organizations and the interface between people, organizations, and information systems

Foundational science for informatics that looks at how the human mind works

Process by which clinical data is used to help make decisions and develop predictive analytics

Question 4

Choose the best definition or example for the informatics key term in the question.
What is Health Information Exchange?

An initiative to improve healthcare quality, efficiency, and effectiveness by making healthcare information available when and where it is needed through technology, standards, interoperability, governance, and cooperation

A computer-based program designed to assist clinicians in making clinical decisions

Process by which clinical data is used to make decisions

Correct!

The process of electronic transmission or sharing of healthcare information or an organization that organizes and oversees the transmission process

Question 5

Choose the best definition or example for the informatics key term in the question.
What is an Information System?

Emerging field of study that focuses upon how information is processed both in the human mind and the computer

. Process that generates information and knowledge as a product

Correct!

 

Question 19:         Health Care

 

NR 531 WEEK 5 OBESITY QUIZ

Question 1

Your 7-year-old patient arrives to clinic complaining of pain in bilateral knees and is diagnosed with Osgood-Schlatter disease. You notice that the patient has a BMI that no longer plots on the CDC BMI graph. What anticipatory guidance will you give the parents of this child?

Diet and nutrition advice, lab testing, motivational interviewing with a 24- hour diet recall along with monthly weight checks

Question 2

Your adult patient has a BMI of 50.1 along with HTN, diabetes and dyslipidemia. What would be the best recommended avenue of weight loss for this patient?

Diet and exercise along with a referral to bariatric management

 

 

Question 20:         Gender Studies

 

Respond to the following 4 questions (250 words per question double space 12 font) using the framework of critical media studies. Citations are APA format.

Instruction

  1. Sut Jhally traces the history of advertising from text-based to the image-system that we have today. Briefly outline the key elements of the shift from “rational” text-based advertising to the “emotional” image-based system that we have today. How do contemporary advertisers associate their products with our most cherished emotions? According to Jhally,what is the correlation between buying thins and having a satisfying life? 2. What is the political economy of media and, briefly, why is it important to critical media studies? How does the context of production influence the text? This type of research comes up in Dines and Humez, Kellner, Croteau et al., Jenner, Foster and McChesney, Be as thorough as possible. 3. In Wang’s article on Top Chef, a Vietnamese -American contestant, Hung Huynh excels at French cuisine and is praised for his technical perfection, yet the judges critique him week after week for lacking what? According to the judges, how should Huynh intangible quality? With reference to the stereotype of the “technical buy unfeeling Asian” and the ” perpetually ‘foreign’ status that Asian Americans hold in the U.S. racial imaginary (537), how can they judges’ expectations of Huynh be interpreted as racialized? 4. Drawing on Balance and Hall, outline the following ambivalent figures: the model minority; the slave-figure; the “native” and the “clown”.

 

Question 21:         Business Finance

 

Identify 2 ways in which human service practice is different in the mental health setting versus the criminal justice setting (you may use any venue in the criminal justice setting for comparison, such as prison, jail, juvenile detention, pretrial diversion, parole, probation, etc.)

 

Question 22:         Mathematics

The table lists the average annual cost of tuition and fees at private 4-year colleges for selected years.

Year Tuition and Fees (in dollars)

1994 11,719

1996 13,994

1998 17,709

2000 16,233

2002 21,116

2004 24,101

2006 32,218

  1. Given any two data points with each consisting of the year and its corresponding tuition and fees, describe in detail how you would find a linear function that models the data shown in the table. Be sure to clearly define and interpret all components involved in your model.
  2. Determine a linear function that models the data, where 0 x= represents 1994, and 1 x= represents 1995, and so on. Use the points ( ) 0,11719 and( ) 12,32218 . Choose two more combinations of points and use them to create two additional linear functions that model the data. Record the three linear functions below.

Function 1:

Function 2:

Function 3:

  1. How would you go about using these functions to predict the average annual cost of tuition and fees for a future year? Suppose you are in the marketing department for a college and you are trying to determine which function to use to encourage future students attend your college. Explore and state the messages that can be sent to prospective students by each function.
  2. Use all three functions to approximate tuition and fees in 2035. State your results below. Next, choose the function you would use to encourage prospective students and explain the reasoning behind your choice.

Function 1:

Function 2:

Function 3:

Function of choice:

Explanation:

 

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Question 23:         Other

 

Hourigan, Settipani, Southam-Gerow, & Kendall (2012) explain, “Childhood anxiety disorders are among the most common childhood disorders” (p.104).  Review the case example of Evan in Chapter 7 and based on Evan’s Fear Ladder, what plans would you make to involve Evan’s teachers.  What strategies could be used in an educational setting to help Evan overcome his disorder?  What instructional or classroom management practices might the teacher need to modify to accommodate Evan’s need?

 

Question 24:         Science

Question 1 (4 points)

According to the National Institute for Health Care Management: Understanding U.S. Health Care Spending article, which of the following are correlated with the rising obesity rates in the U.S.? (Select all that apply)

Question 1 options:

Increase in other chronic health conditions
Increase in the determinants of health
Increase in health spending
Decrease in provider visits

Question 2 (4 points)

 

As of 2009, national health expenditures in the U.S. were approximately what percentage of the Gross Domestic Product?

Question 2 options:

14.9%
16.0%
17.6%
19.2%

Question 3 (4 points)

 

According to figures from the National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), how much was spent on health care in the U.S. in 2009?

Question 3 options:

$1.25 trillion
$2.5 trillion
$3.75 trillion
$5.0 trillion

Question 4 (4 points)

 

Which of the following have contributed to the increases in the cost of health care? (select all that apply)

Question 4 options:

New medical technology
Growing rates of obesity
Perverse provider reimbursement mechanisms (i.e. fee-for-service)
Expanded insurance coverage
The practice of defensive medicine

Question 5 (4 points)

 

Comorbidities require less sophisticated coordination of care.

Question 5 options:

True
False

Question 6 (4 points)

 

According to “Crossing the Quality Chasm,” redesigning the healthcare system involves which of the following:

Question 6 options:

Evidence-based care
Effective use of information technology
Paying higher salaries to clinicians
All of the above
None of the above
Both a and b

Question 7 (4 points)

 

The Institute of Medicine Committee specified a blueprint for a health care delivery systems in the 21st century that will result in an ideal system if followed.

Question 7 options:

True
False

Question 8 (4 points)

 

According to the Institute of Medicine, Coverage Matters: Insurance and Health Care article, historically, some of the factors that influenced whether someone was uninsured included:

Question 8 options:

Gender
Ethnicity
Marriage status
All of the above
None of the above
Both a and b

Question 9 (4 points)

 

Historically, most of the uninsured in the U.S. have been illegal immigrants.

Question 9 options:

True
False

Question 10 (4 points)

 

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Medicaid fills in the gaps in the availability of health insurance by:

Question 10 options:

Covering all people below the poverty line
Covering just low-income children
Covering certain groups of low-income people
All of the above

Question 11 (4 points)

 

According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, which group accounts for the most Medicaid spending?

Question 11 options:

Children under the age of 19
Unemployed adults
Elderly and disabled adults
Dual-eligibles over the age of 65

Question 12 (4 points)

 

Meaningful Use sets the specific objectives that eligible professionals and hospitals must achieve to participate in the EHR Incentive Programs.

Question 12 options:

True
False

Question 13 (4 points)

 

Providers who prove compliant with meaningful use regulations will receive what tangible benefit?

Question 13 options:

A meaningful use compliance certification
Decreased government regulation
Government incentive payments
Acceptance onto the stage 3 rules committee

Question 14 (4 points)

 

In comparison to the general population, patients receiving Long-Term and Post-Acute Care services typically:

Question 14 options:

Have a smaller range of conditions
Have less complex conditions
Have a wider range of conditions that are more complex
Have less complex conditions that are wider in range

Question 15 (4 points)

 

According to the Long-Term and Post-Acute Care (LTPAC) Roundtable Summary Report of Findings (Anderson), what are the two ways to capture data discussed in the article?

Question 15 options:

ERH and HIE
EHR and IHE
HER and HEI
EHR and HIE

Question 16 (4 points)

 

The article “Adoption of Electronic Health Records in the United States” stated that there are eight barriers to adoption of Electronic Health Records. Specifically, the article mentions the barrier of “Time” and stated that productivity is initially reduced when caregivers start using the EHR’s. This is due to:

Question 16 options:

The Lack Curve
The Learning Curve
The Boonstra Effect
The Interconnect Effect

Question 17 (4 points)

 

The article “Adoption of Electronic Health Records in the United States” discusses government incentives related to reform to adopt information technology in meaningful ways. The ____________ Act includes spending to create a network of Electronic Health Records.

Question 17 options:

HIPAA
HITECH
TECH-Health
Health Outcomes

Question 18 (4 points)

 

The article “Adoption of Electronic Health Records in the United States” stated that in order to be considered multifunctional, Electronic Health Records need to have at least two of the following capabilities:

Question 18 options:

Generation of patient information, generation of patience, order exit management, decision support
Generation of patient registry, generation of healthy outcomes, order entry management and character support
Generation of patient information, generation of patient registry and panel information, order entry management and decision support
Generation of patient information, generation of registry and panel information, order entry management and healthy outcomes

Question 19 (4 points)

 

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The Chief Medical Information Officer is a physician who bridges the process of information management and medical practice. This position is usually seen as:

Question 19 options:

More administrative than clinical
Equally administrative and clinical
More clinical than administrative
All clinical and no administrative responsibilities–it’s a symbolic position

Question 20 (4 points)

 

The initiation of the electronic medical record is a new strategy in today’s healthcare environment but actually began as far back as:

Question 20 options:

1970’s
1990’s
1960’s
2009

Question 21 (4 points)

 

As described in the Health Affairs article, “Strategic Action in Health Information Technology: Why the Obvious has Taken So Long,” we have come a long way in healthcare IT over the past thirty-five years. However, observers have expressed repeated concerns since it’s inception. Of those concerns the most prevalent is:

Question 21 options:

The amount of data being collected
The effects on the physician/patient relationship
The accuracy of the patient data being collected
The ability to train users to be proficient in data management

Question 22 (4 points)

 

The National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (NCVHS) was established by Congress more than fifty years ago to serve as a public advisory body to HHS on health data, statistics, and national health information policy. They have been extremely influential over the years in establishing standards for health data, health data systems and patient record systems. One of the most important and influential pieces of legislation the NCVHS developed is:

Question 22 options:

The Affordable Care Act
The Social Security Act
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
None of the above

Question 23 (4 points)

 

States have the flexibility to design their own Medicaid programs within federal guidelines.

Question 23 options:

True
False

 

Question 25:         Humanities

QUESTION 1

Describe and discuss what cultural issues may impact on you as an ICT professional if your organisation merges with another. Try to think deeply about some of the possible impacts on you and your career path that could result from an organisation merger or restructure.

Write 100-200 words in answer to this.

QUESTION 2

From your readings this week, especially in Part 3 of this week’s seminar, which framework are you going to use to analyze the scenarios in Assignment 1? Choose either MacDonald or White. Provide reasons to support why have you chosen this one.

Write 100-200 words to explain your choice. There is no need for discussion with your classmates of this question.

QUESTION 3

You are faced with a situation you feel may be unethical. How would you set about analyzing the situation? Think carefully about the ethical analysis process, not the potential ethical dilemma. That is to say, try not to get caught up in developing and describing a scenario that is unethical. Rather, your focus is on the procedural aspect of dealing with a situation you feel may be unethical.

What questions do you need to ask yourself to determine whether this is an unethical situation? What facts or data do you need to consider and why? What, or who – might help you in your analysis? Use the Ethical Framework provided by White’s 3-step method to frame your responses to Question 3.

Write 150-250 words, to answer this question.

If you wish, choose a specific example of an unethical situation; either fictional, or that you have actually experienced. Discuss with your classmates the different approaches you each have taken and try to explain why there are differences, but once again, try not to get caught up in describing every detail of the situation but instead get to the heart of what makes it unethical, unprofessional or possibly risky in the context of the professional workplace.

QUESTION 4

Where you are working in your internship, locate your company’s Values statement or Code of Ethics, and ask your supervisor if you can either link to it from the company website in the discussion forum or reproduce it in the forum. If your supervisor refuses permission, or there is no Values statement or Code of Ethics, prepare one for their use based on the reading you have done. You might model it on one you have come across. If you need, look at the Western as a guide.

Write 100-200 words to evaluate the code of ethics or values statement, whichever you are working with, against this week’s readings. Discuss what is good about it, what might be missing and how it could be improved.

 

Question 26:         Humanities

Which of these statements reflect reasons Thomas Paine gave for declaring independence from British rule? Check all that apply.

a.The king was unable to act efficiently due to checks on his power.

b.King George’s reign was colored by abusive uses of power.

c.King George lacked the education to make wise policy decisions.

d.The king was envious of the colonies’ prosperity.

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Question 27:         Marketing

 

Give step by step instructions on creating a sales pipeline. Include different categories of pipeline, how they are measured and levels of involvement for each. 1 or 1 1/2 page without the reference page. APA times new roman #12

 

Question 28:         Other

 

Purpose of Assignment

The purpose of this assignment is to evaluate the inventory section of two companies using basic comparative analysis, and to interpret the data to gain insight about the company’s inventory management.

Assignment Steps

Resources: Financial Accounting: Tools for Business Decision Making

Write a 1,050-word comparative analysis using the financial statements of Amazon.com, Inc. presented in Appendix D, and the financial statements for Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., presented in Appendix E, including the following:

  • Compute these 2014 values for each company based on the information in the financial statements:
    • Inventory turnover (Use cost of sales and inventories)
    • Days of inventory
  • Conclusions concerning the management of the inventory can you draw from this data. 

Show work on Excel® spreadsheet and submit with analysis.

 

 

Question 29:         Business Finance

 

As a consultant hired by the Hotel Escargo management team, you have been asked to collect data on the three main areas of focus (check-in, check-out, and hotel offerings) and graph the data to identify any issue occurrences. Use the hotel information provided.(attachment) unit 3 attachmnet.pdf  Collect the data, create graphs and/or tables, and describe any work measurement and time study analysis you would do. Then, from this analysis, select one main area of focus and create a fishbone diagram that captures all potential root causes. Provide a brief analysis of descriptive text on the identified items. Also describe how work sampling and time study assist in analysis.

3 to 4 pages, references, own words

Question 30:         Political Science

1)Read the news article

https://www.npr.org/2018/06/18/617874348/bureaucra…

2)Write a short commentary on the article regarding bureaucracy.

3)Responding thoughtfully and informally, MLA format. ( 2 paragraphs)

4)Reference Page

 

MANAGEMENT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

An expectation that team members are responsible for their activities and must report outcomes transparently

Accountability

The implicit and explicit power that a manager or employee has to fulfill an organizational function or role

Authority

The level of individual discretion that an employee has to make decisions

Autonomy

A trusted intermediary that facilitates mutually agreed upon outcomes for two or more parties

Broker

A design structure that relies on senior-level managers to collect information broadly, in order to make decisions on behalf of the entire company

Centralized Organization

A predefined structure order of authority that determines how decisions are made and communicated

Chain of Command

The synchronization of an organization’s functions to ensure efficient use of resources in pursuit of goals and objectives

Coordination

A compendium of policies intended to ensure transparency and fulfillment of duties to stakeholders

Corporate Governance

A design structure that relies on all employees to collect and communicate information, in order to make decisions and recommend changes

Decentralized Structure

When a manager grants power and authority to another team member

Delegation

A design structure that groups together processes and jobs based on functions, products, or customers

Departmentalization

The process through which managers divide labor based on tasks and functions

Differentiation

A design structure that groups processes and jobs based on clearly defined market segments or geography

Divisional Organization

The degree of which policies and procedures determine specific jobs and functions

Formalization

Independent workers that supply organizations with talent for projects or time-bound objectives

Free Agents

A hierarchical structure where employees are managed through clear levels of authority

Functional Organization

A vertically organized structure of power relationships, where the top level holds clear levels of authority.

Unites the different parts of the company, brings units in tune w/ company’s underlying principles, core purposes, goals, and objectives

Hierarchy

Horizontal coordination between functions, departments, and organizational activities

Integration

A design structure that facilitates horizontal integration and collaboration

Matrix Organization

A group of independent companies that organize themselves to appear as a larger entity

Network Organization

A visual document that communicates how a company is organized

Organizational Chart

A highly adaptive structure defined by horizontal integration, distributed decision making, and employees with a high degree of generalization

Organic Organization

The optimum number of direct reports that a person can manage effectively

Span of Control

Focusing a group or individual’s activities based on strengths, aptitudes, or skills

Specialization

A performance context where policies and procedures seek to create uniform results

Standardization

A work arrangement in which an employee is given flexibility in terms of work location; and often hours as well

Telecommuting

A philosophy that each employee is given reports to and is accountable to only one manager

Unity-of-Command Principle

A structure, characterized by hierarchical authority and communication channels

Vertical Organization Structure

A group of employees who work across barriers consisting of time, distance, and organizational boundaries, while being linked together by information and communication technologies

Virtual Team

*What is the opposite of ORGANIC?

Mechanistic

*Example of Vertical Approach

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Chief of Police–>Captain–>branches off into three different divisions–>each division branches off into more specific roles

*Authority, Chain of Command, Corporate Governance, Broker, Organization Chart, Network Organization, Unity-of-Command Principle—>These all relate to what approach???

*Vertical approach

*Decentralized Structure, Departmentalization, Functional Organization, Autonomy, Divisional Organization, Matrix Organization—>These are relate to what approach??

*Horizontal approach

*____________ is a system of tasks, reporting relationships, and communication that links people and positions within an organization

Organizational Structure

*____________ describes the ___________ __________ of how an org should ideally work as designed

Organizational chart, formal structure

*1. Division of work
2. Supervisory relationships
3. Span of control
4. Communication channels
5. Major sub units
6. Staff positions
7. Levels of management

7 Parts of an Organizational Chart

*______________ _____________ group people with similar skills into the same department. (Also known as departmentalization)

Functional Structures

*________________ _______________ group together people who work on similar products, work in same geographical region, serve same customers, or perform same process.

Divisional Structures

*Focus/purpose of Functional Structures?

Cost EFFICIENCY

*Focus/purpose of Divisional Structures?

EFFECTIVENESS

*Which type of structure are these ADVANTAGES of–>
1. Expertise focused on division (products, customers, regions, process)
2. Coordination across functions within divisions
3. Problem solving for product or service delivery

Advantages of DIVISIONAL STRUCTURES

*Which type of structure are these ADVANTAGES of—>
1. Expertise focused functional skills (accounting, HR, etc.)
2. Training within functions promotes skill development
3. Efficient use of human resources

Advantages of FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURES

*Which type of structure are these DISADVANTAGES of—>
1. Inefficiencies from duplication of resources
2. Poor communication across divisions
3. Achieve divisional goals instead of organizational goals

Disadvantages of DIVISIONAL STRUCTURES

*Which type of structure are these DISADVANTAGES of—>
1. Poor communication across departments
2. Poor problem solving for product or service delivery

Disadvantages of FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURES

*What type of decision making is characterized by top management keeping strong control w/ formal authority and formal rules?

Centralized Decision-Making

*What type of decision making is characterized by being distributed throughout the organization using informal authority and informal rules?

Decentralized Decision-Making

*What type of org is characterized by formal authority and mechanistic design?

Vertical/Rigid Organization

*What type of org is characterized by informal authority and organic design?

Horizontal/Adaptive Organization

^Traditionally, organizational power structures were…. democratic, horizontal, autocratic, or collaborative?

Autocratic

^Why must orgs strike a balance between differentiation and integration in creating an org structure…… to ensure managers have absolute control/responsibility, to allow the organization to adapt to changing environments, to spread responsibility among all employees regardless of rank, or to facilitate positive relations between workers/managers?

To allow the organization to adapt to changing environments

^The degree of integration in an org structure directly corresponds to the degree of ___________ in it. Efficiency, unity, autonomy, or coordination?

Coordination

^As a company grows/branches into divisions, what should be ensured for a successful transition of its org structure to compensate for continued unity?….. Delegation of power and authority to staff, formalization of specific jobs/functions, coordination of a company’s functions/operations, or standardization of policies and procedures?

Standardization of policies and procedures

^A managers span of control concerns…. their hierarchical rank within the org, the number of subordinates that report to a manager, the duties a manager is delegated, or the overall time the manager has been at the company?

The number of subordinates that report to a manager

^Which describes a vertical org structure…. Balanced, decentralized, diffuse, hierarchical?

Hierarchical

^Good corporate governance…. promotes good relations w/ management and subordinates, prevents power from being too centralized, ensures the chain of command is respected, or ensures that responsibilities to stakeholders are fulfilled?

Ensures that responsibilities to stakeholders are fulfilled

^What the Unity-of-Command Principle prevent…. accountability/transparency, disorganization/confusion, centralization of authority, or ethical breakdowns/lapses?

Disorganization and confusion

^Network organizations allow for…

Independent companies to more easily work with each other

^How does a decentralized structure differ from a centralized structure?…. There are no chains of command for employees to follow, all employees are expected to collect/communicate info, org structures change frequently to meet emerging needs, or all employees share equal power and authority in decision making?

All employees are expected to collect/communicate info

^Departmentalization aims to group processes and jobs based most on…. efficiency, authority, similarity, or productivity?

Similarity

^What type of organization would benefit a company that seeks high levels of collaboration between departments but w/ clear chains of command?…. Bureaucratic, divisional, matrix, or functional?

Matrix

^In a divisional org, decision-making authority is typically ___________ than in a function organization. Less autonomous, more diffuse, more centralized, or less shared?

More diffuse

^What benefit do adaptive approaches provide organizations?… They allow orgs to more efficiently respond to situations based on the org structure that works,
they allow for considerable autonomy among diff divisions while providing high levels of accountability,
they provide significant centralization of authority while diffusing responsibility,
or they provide orgs w/ the ability to rapidly transform their chain of command while retaining high degree of authority?

They allow orgs to more efficiently respond to situations based on the org structure that works

^Accountability depends on ___________. Leadership, transparency, skill, or autonomy?

Transparency

^Primary benefit of a company that allows employee telecommuting?… Prevents ethical breakdowns, provides high degree of flexibility, reinforces transparency, or increases profits by reducing worker costs?

Telecommuting provides a high degree of flexibility

^Free agents are _________ workers. Salaried, permanent, contract, or part-time?

Contract

^Which of these should the manager of a virtual team do to reduce barriers?…. Carefully select team members that are social and extroverted, organize team by setting defined goals for each member and allowing them to work autonomously, use information and communication technology, or plan face-to-face team-building meetings?

Use information and communication technology

 

Which of the following is NOT a part of planning?

Conducting Meetings

PERT is an acronym for what?

Program evaluation and review technique

Which of the following is NOT a part of the PERT chart?

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NOTA – PERT includes a most pessimistic time, a most optimistic time, time expected, and a most probable time.

What theory states ” organizational change is inevitable and that organizations and people within the organization have no other choice except following natural law?”

The Mechanistic theory

Which of the following theories argues that the effect of studying something/someone changes the effects of the study.

Hawthorne effect theory

Which of the following theories determines interdependence of variables

The systems theory. The systems theory deals with interdependence instead of independence of variables and their interactions.

Which is the second stage of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?

Safety

When something is measurable in number it is…

Quantitative

Who is considered to be the father of modern management?

Peter Drucker

Who completed a study on the fastest and most efficient way to do a job?

Frank Gilbreth. Frank and Lillian Gillbreth did a study on the most efficient way to do a job.

________________ is a way to show a time needed to complete a long or complicated project.

Gantt chart. A Gantt chart is used to show who will be working on or different stages of a project and the time each step takes.

Which person created the five management functions?

Henry Fayol – 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Commanding 4. Coordinating 5. Controlling

LPC stands for…

Least preferred co-worker (Fiedler’s contingency theory)

Which of the following are the levels of management?

Technical, interpersonal and conceptual

Your company needs to hire more people. Using the Affirmative action program who is your priority.

Hire towards the quota determined by your HR department.

Which of the following is considered a pioneer in management theory?

Mary Parker Follet. This woman from the late 1800’s wrote many books on management theory, and human relations. She also worked as a speaker and volunteer social worker.

Which of the following terms illustrates the order of authority in an organization?

Chain of command

In Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory, the hygiene refers to what?

Dissatisfiers.

When you find the answer to your problem but settle for something else is an example of the

Bounded rationality model

When you choose the solution that has the greatest benefit for you

Econological model

Which of the following people was associated with the Hawthorne Effect Study?

Elton Mayo. Elton Mayo is also considered the founder of the Human Relations Movement.

If you are an authoritarian, you ascribe to

Theory X

Which of the following is considered the father of strategic planning?

Chester Barnard

Which of the following developed the Acceptance theory?

Chester Barnard

A manager who believes that all people are valuable and want to contribute to their best ability you ascribe to which theory…

Theory Y

Which of the following is NOT a contributor to an employee’s attitude?

Education – generally not considered a contributor to an employee’s attitude.

When someone is producing at standard it is called

Norm

Who created the contingency theory?

Fred Fiedler

What standard is the following ” Giving monetary values to realized sales? ”

Revenue standard

What standard is the following “monetary value for the cost of operations, such as machine-hour-cost, cost of material per unit, cost of labor per unit, cost per unit of sales, etc…

Cost standard

What standard is the following “quantified standards at the operating level. Products produced in numbers, in value, material used in weightage and value, labor employed in house and in value, services rendered in value, etc…

Physical standard

What are Henry Mintzberg’s four classifications of organization?

Simple – complex – stable – dynamic

A good TQM program does NOT include…

A method with alternatives to solutions.

What is NOT a protected Title VII class?

Sexual preference

What is NOT an example of traditional authority?

Secretary

Which of following is responsible for ensuring employee safety?

OSHA

Which of the following is NOT a way to deal with risk?

Deflecting

Which of the following is an example of environmental stress?

Construction noise

Which of the following is an example of Maslow’s first level of needs?

Food

Which is the second stage of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Safety needs

When you choose the best action for each situation

Situational leadership

When a supervisor asks for opinions in making decisions

Participative leadership

What is a function of the Worker Unions

Negotiate pay

Which of the following is an example of Maslow’s third level of needs?

Love

What is NOT a part of a training program?

Promotion

Which of the following is an industry commonly known to have line employees?

Automotive

Hands off leadership is also called…

Laissez faire leadership

Which of the following tells employees and others what is the main purpose of the company is…

Mission statement

A policy can be defined as a _________________ action course that serves as a guide for the identified and accepted objectives and goals.

Predefined

A totalitarian leader

Autocratic leadership

The way that people communicate with each other using their bodies…

Body language

Leadership characteristics that inspire employees is called

Charisma

Agreement of members of a group on a decision is called

Consensus

Leaders that use a group ideas to make decisions

Trait

Which is NOT a factor that influences the favorableness of a leader?

Charisma level

A billboard is an example of…

One-way communication

Leaders that give the group total freedom

Laissez-faire

Which of the following is NOT a communication pattern?

Arc

When someone receives too much information and cannot tell what is important from what is not it is called…

Overload

When someone deliberately tampers with a message, leaving out information, it is called…

Omitting

Which of the following is NOT a supervisory function?

Marketing

Which of the following is an example of an extrinsic reward?

Raise

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If a plant manager is tasked to reduce costs by 10% this is an example of what kind of goal?

Operational

Which of the following shows the relationship between employees and their peers?

Organizational chart

Which of the following shows alternate paths for decision making?

Decision tree

when a supervisor administers a questionnaire among participants that have never met it is called…

Delphi technique

Which of the following shows timelines for projects?

Gantt chart

Who created Theory X and Theory Y

Douglas McGregor

When two groups of individuals work together to resolve a problem it is called

Negotiation

What is it called when a third party is facilitating negotiations?

Mediation

An employee that works on an assembly line performing the same task again and again is an example of

Job specialization

Two receptionists work at Widget Inc; one in the morning and one in the afternoon. they are an example of….

Job sharing

When a person acts as expected as part of the group they are portraying their…

Role

Who first studied job motions with bricklayers, studying how fewer hand motions made the work faster?

Frank Bilbreth

What is it called when a third party is empowered to resolve a disagreement…

Arbitration

Who was a proponent of bureaucracy?

Max Weber

Which of the following can NOT be discussed in a job interview?

Children

Which of the following was NOT one of Edward Deming’s suggestions?

Decrease the number of employees. Deming believed that most production problems stemmed from inefficient management practices, not employee problems.

The grapevine of the organization is everything BUT…

Formal

What does ERG stand for

Existence Relatedness Growth – The ERG theory is so named for its three levels.

When a supervisor believes that all employees like work it is called….

Theory Y

Which of the following describes the break even point?

Expenses – profits = 0

This scientific study originally tested worker’s output and light, later revealing unintended consequences.

Hawthorne effect

Which of the following types of discrimination does the Civil Rights Act of 1964 NOT ban?

Religion – Race – Nationality – Gender : All of these are addressed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Referent power is the same as

Charismatic leadership

Which of the following describes chain of command?

The hierarchy through which decisions are made, responsibility lie, and power flows. The chain of command emphasizes the vertical structure of an organization, or in other words the relationships between leaders and subordinate.

Legitimate power is the same as…

Traditional leadership

What is meant by the statement “you can delegate authority but not responsibility?”

Managers have the right to delegate assignments and projects to other people, but the responsibility will always lie with them.

Regarding sexual harassment which of the following is NOT true

Harasser must be a superior employee

Which of the following is NOT one of the categories of managerial roles?

Conceptual roles.

Who created a system of human needs and motivations

Abraham Maslow

Which of the following describes management information systems?

Programs which are used to help managers work and organize more efficiently

Long term success through customer satisfaction

TQM

Which of the following is NOT a step in the decision making process according to Hebert Simon?

Identify. Identification of the problem occurs in the intelligence stage.

Who was responsible for developing the 14 principles of management.

Henry Fayol

Which of the following does the Upstream Capital Costs Index NOT track

Opportunities. However this is a factor of SWOT analysis.

Which of the following are barriers to making decisions?

Statistics – Lack of statistics – Emotions

An employee knows that if they do well on a presentation they will receive a promotion which they want more than anything else. They believe that there is an 85% chance that they will do well on the presentation. According to Vroom’s Expectancy Thoery, what is their motivation level?

.85

Which of the following is NOT a type of resistance

Biological

What is a correct interpretation of the two factor model in context.

A person becomes happy with their job when they feel responsibility and accomplishment.

The organizational structure where organizations are divided by products or divisions

Product

Who does performance appraisals?

Managers or supervisors. Performance appraisals are used to determine an employee’s efficiency and abilities. It may result in a raise if the employee is doing well, or being fired or sent to additional training if they do poorly.

Who believed that managers make decisions based on their assumptions of human nature?

McGregor

Which of the following is a job description?

A listing of what a job includes such as tasks, duties and responsibilities.

When an interest in the people’s problems affects the outcome, not the changes themselves, it is known as…

Hawthorne effect

What are the six level of management according to Henri Fayol?

Forecasting – Planning – Organizing – Commanding – Coordinating – Controlling

Factor that always stays the same

Constant

Which of the following is NOT one of the three qualities a good manager should possess?

Diagnostic skills are not necessary. However Conceptual – Technical – Interpersonal are important.

Information that is difficult to measure is called

Qualitative

A flat organization is an organization with

A low number ( if any ) of mid level management positions. this way the top level management comes into direct contact with the low level employees.

If you believe that all people are good – you ascribe to this school of thought

Humanistic

Which of the following describes the difference between line and staff positions?

Line positions are directly involved in creating profit, whereas staff positions do the maintenance or supporting jobs. Line positions would be involved in manufacturing the sales, whereas staff positions involve payrolls or other supporting types of jobs.

Standards or principles

Values

Which of the following describes budget?

A plan for how money will be used effectively. A budget helps to organize and track the flow of money in a company.

Which of the following is NOT a factor with job satisfaction?

Vacation location

Which of the following is an open system

A clothing store which operates in a busy mall

An advertisement company

Both of these companies must directly interact and respond to occurrences in the market.

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When a person responds to a neutral stimulus __________ _______________is being used.

Classical conditioning

Which theory advocates increasing production by breaking down production into simplified processes?

Taylorism. Taylor encouraged breaking jobs from complex processes into step-by-step patterns of production.

Clayton Alderfer created his ERG theory based on the work of which theorist?

Abraham Maslow. Alderfer wanted to revise Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to match empirical research.

Which of the following acts guarantees the right of workers to form unions?

National Labor Relations Act. The formation of unions also allows workers to engage in collective bargaining.

When you are a secretary and there are seven levels between your role and the CEO, your organization is considered to be.

Tall

Which of the following best describes the glass ceiling

A theoretical barrier which stops women and minorities from advancing in business areas. For example, statistics show that even when women and men have equal qualifications, it is more often the man who receives the job.

The CEO of a major corporation giving a talk show interview is an example of…

Public Relations

Management Theory: Empirical/Case Approach

The experience of past situations guide the present. Find out why an action succeeded or failed by analyzing the basic reasons.

Management Theory: Interpersonal Behavior Approach

Understanding people and relationships. If people were understood perfectly, reaching organizational goals would not be difficult.

Management Theory: Group Behavior Approach

Work in groups rather than in isolation. The study of how behavior patterns in groups affect production.

Management Theory: Cooperative Social Systems Approach

Propounded by Christian Barnard, it is the cooperative interaction of thoughts, ideas, wants, and desires of two or more people.

Management Theory: Sociotechnical Systems Approach

Credited to E.L. Trist, this approach seeks to emphasize the systems aspect of group behavior.

Management Theory: Decision Theory Approach

A manager’s most important function is decision making and therefore decisions should be the central focus. All other functions of a manager are built around decisions.

Management Theory: Systems Approach

Management is a system, which envelops within itself many subsystems, all operating within the total environment.

Management Theory: Mathematical or Management Science Approach

Mathematical models forms part of this theory. Each situation is fraught in terms of available mathematical models and then analyzes the situation thereby arriving at a mathematically correct decision.

Management Theory: Contingency or Situational Approach

Any manager’s performance is directly related to a set of given circumstance or contingency. Some theorist also feel that it takes into account not only situations but also on the behavior.

Management Theory: Managerial Roles Approach

Propounded by Professor Henry Mintzberg. Observing what other managers do, then using such observations as a platform for analyzing and concluding on the basis of such analysis.

Management Theory: Operational Approach

Imparting knowledge from every other field of knowledge such as sociology, mathematics, economics, psychology etc…

Economic Environment

Availability of capital, rate of interest, labor availability and how well things are organized, general price levels, the degree of productivity, the willingness of entrepreneurs and availability of managerial skills.

Technological Environment

How good the available knowledge is used through technology is a factor to reckon with. How to conceive ideas, how to design, how to produce optimally, how to effect efficient distribution and how well marketing is done, are technology oriented.

Social Environment

Value systems unique to particular group of people or society. The value system consists of attitudes, behavior patterns, needs, wants, expectations, level of education, the degree of intelligence, general beliefs, customs and traditions.

Political and Legal Environment

Laws, rules, regulations, governmental policies that affect an organization.

Ethical Environment

Holding on to moral principles of what is right and what is wrong, guided by value systems prevalent in society and generally behaving in a responsible way.

 

 

Management Theories

Scientific management theory
(Adam Smith; Frederick W. Taylor; Gilbreths)
Administrative management theory
(Max Weber; Henri Fayol)
Behavioral management theory
(Mary Parker Follett)
Management science theory
Organizational environment theory

Scientific Management Theory

popular theory in the early 1900s, concerned primarily with the “best” method and “right” wage for a job
Adam Smith: found that the performance of the factories in which workers specialized in only one or a few tasks was much greater than the performance of the factory in which each worker performed all pin-making task.
Job specialization and the division of labor

Job Specialization

The process by which a division of labor occurs as different workers specialize in different tasks over time

Job specialization and the division of labor

Separation of activities into distinct tasks and assigning these to different people.

Scientific Management

The systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of
redesigning the work progress to increase efficiency.

Scientific management 4 principles

Study the way workers perform their tasks, gather all the informal job knowledge that workers posses, and experiment with ways of improving how tasks are performed.
Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures
Carefully select workers who posses skills and abilities that match the needs of the task, and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures
Establish a fair or acceptable level of performance for a task, and then develop a pay system that rewards performance above the acceptable level.

Scientific management Problems

Managers frequently implemented only the
increased output side of Taylor’s plan
(Workers did not participate in the increased output;Managers increased the amount of work that each worker has to do)
Simplified jobs were often monotonous and repetitive , and many workers became dissatisfied with their jobs
Workers learned that performance increases often resulted in fewer jobs and layoffs. Workers slowed their pace of work.
Moving conveyor belts controls the pace of work.

Scientific management
Lillian and Frank Gilbreth

Aims
analyze every individual action necessary to perform a particular task and break it into
each of its component actions
find better ways to perform each component action
reorganize each of the component actions so that the action as a whole could be performed more efficiently
Findings
Often the management of work setting became a game between workers an managers: mangers tried to increase performance and workers tried to hide the true potential efficiency.

Administrative management theory

the study of how to create an organizational structure and control system that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness

Principles of Bureaucracy

hierarchical authority, job specialization, formalized rules
Max Weber (1864 – 1920)
a system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness

Weber’s principles of bureaucracy

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In a bureaucracy, a manager’s formal authority derives from the position he or she holds in the organization
In a bureaucracy, people should occupy positions because of their performance, not because of their social standing or personal contacts
The extent of each position’s formal authority and task responsibilities, and its relationship to other positions in an organization, should be clearly specified
Authority can be exercised effectively in an organization when positions are arranged hierarchically, so employees know whom to report to and who reports to them
Managers must create a well-defined system of
rules, standard operating procedures (SOP), and norms so they can effectively control behavior within an organization

Rules

formal written instructions that specify actions to be taken under different circumstances to achieve specific goals

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

specific sets of written instructions about how to perform a certain aspect of a task

Norms

Unwritten, informal codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situations and are considered important by most members of a group or an organization

Fayol’s Principles of Management

Division of labor, authority and responsibility, unity of command, line of authority, centralization, unity of direction, equity, order, initiative, discipline, remuneration of personnel, stability of tenure of personnel, subordination of individual interest to the common interest, esprit de corps

Behavioral Management Theory

the study of how managers should behave to motivate employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to the achievement of organizational goals

Focus of Scientific Management

the relationship between worker and task to increase efficiency

Focus of Administrative Management

to create an organizational structure and control system that leads to efficiency and effectiveness

The focus of of behavioral management

how managers should behave to motivate employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to the achievement of organizational goals

Mary Parker Follett (1868 – 1933) Concerns

She was concerned that Taylor ignored the
human side of the organization.
Taylor never proposed that managers
should involve workers in analyzing their
jobs to identify better ways to perform.

Human Relations Movement The Hawthorne Studies

a management approach that advocates the idea that supervisors should receive behavioral training to manage subordinates in ways that elicit their cooperation and increase their productivity

Mary Parker Follett (1868 – 1933)
radical propositions:

Authority should go with knowledge. If workers have the relevant knowledge of a task, then they should control the task.
Managers in different departments communicate directly with each other (cross-functioning).
The power is fluid and should flow to the person who can best help the organization achieve its goals (horizontal view of authority)

Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) –
The Hawthorne Studies

Many factors such as level of illumination, wall
color etc. influence workers behavior and
resulted to increased workers performance.
Just because workers joined increased
management attention their work performance
increased.
Manager’s behavior or leadership approach can
affect workers’ level of performance (Hawthorne
effect)

Implication of the studies The Hawthorne Studies

The studies demonstrated the importance of understanding how the feeling, thoughts and behavior of work-group member and
managers affect performance.
Behavior of managers and workers in the work setting is as important in explaining the level of performance as the technical aspects of the tasks

Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)

  1. X: assumes people do not like to work and want to be led
    ii. Y: assumes people are willing to work and can be creative
    iii. If a manager holds to one or the other approaches – X or Y – then a self-fulfilling
    prophecy can occur: people will do what the boss wants them to do

Management Science Theory e.g.

An approach to management that uses rigorous quantitative techniques to help managers make maximum use of organizational resources.
Quantitative management
Operations management
Total quality management (TQM)
Management information systems (MIS)

Quantitative Management

utilizes mathematical techniques, like linear programming, modeling, simulation and chaos theory

Management Information Systems (MIS)

Help managers design systems that provide information that is vital for effective decision making

Operations Management (OM)

Provides managers a set of techniques they can use to analyze any aspect of an organization’s production system to increase efficiency

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Focuses on analyzing an organization’s input, conversion, and output activities to increase product quality.

Organizational environment theory

the set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization’s boundaries but affect a manager’s ability to acquire and utilize resources

Open Systems Theory

the assumption that organizations are systems that interact with their environments to obtain esources or inputs and transform them into outputs returned to the environment for consumption

input stage: obtain input from environment
conversion stage: transform input and add value
output stage: release output to environment

Contingency Theory

based on the premise that a leader’s effectiveness is contingent on the extent to which a leader’s style fits or matches characteristics of the situation at hand

Characteristics of environment determine the design of an organizational structure and control systems

mechanistic vs organic structure

mechanistic structure

An organizational structure in which authority is centralized, tasks and rules are clearly specified, and employees are closely supervised.

organic structure

an organizational structure in which authority is decentralized to middle and first-line managers and tasks and roles are left ambiguous to encourage employees to cooperate and respond quickly to the unexpected

Characteristics of management
Organizations

Collections of people who work
together and coordinate their
actions to achieve a wide variety of
goals or desired future outcomes.

Managers

The people responsible for supervising and making the most of an organization’s human and other resources to achieve its goals.

What is management?

The planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of human and other resources to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently

Henri Fayol (1841 – 1925)

Mangement consist of five functions:
organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling

Mary Parker Follett (1868 – 1933)

The art of getting things done through people

Planning

determining organizational goals and a means for achieving them
Deciding which goals the organization will achieve
Deciding what strategies to adopt to attain those
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goals
Deciding how to allocate organizational resources
to pursue the strategies that attain those goals

planning result

Strategy, a cluster of decisions about what goal(s)
to pursue, what actions to take and how to use
resources to achieve goals

Organizing

Structuring working relationships in a way that allows organizational members to work together to achieve oganizational goals
It involves grouping people into departments
according to the kinds of job-specific tasks they
perform
Lays out the lines of authority and responsibility
between individuals and groups
Decide how to organize resources, particulary human resources

organizing result

Organization structure, a formal system of
task and reporting relationships, that coordinates
members to achieve goals

Leading

Articulating a clear vision and energizing and enabling organizational members so they understand the partthey play in achieving organizational goals
Leadership involves manager using their power,
personality, influence, persuasion, and communication skills to coordinate people and groups so their activities and efforts are in harmony
It revolves around encouraging all employees to perform at a high level to help the organization achieve its vision and goals

leading result

Highly motivated and committed workforce

Controlling

Evaluating how well an organization is achieving its
goals and taking action to maintain or improve
performance

Controlling how to?

To exercise control, mangers must decide which
goals to measure and then the must design control
systems that will provide the information necessary to assess performance

Controlling result

the ability to measure performance accurately and regulate organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

Performing managerial tasks: Mintzberg’s typology

Decisional: Interpersonal: Informational:

Decisional Mintzberg’s typology

entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator

Interpersonal Mintzberg’s typology

concerning or involving relationships between people;
Figurehead; leader; liaison

Informational Mintzberg’s typology

monitor, disseminator, spokesperson

Organizational performance

A measure of how efficiently and effectively a manager uses resources to satisfy customers and achieve organizational goals.

efficiency and effectiveness

  1. Efficiency has to do with costs
    2. Effectiveness is synonymous with goal
    attainment

TERM

Efficiency

DEFINITION

using resources in such a way as to maximize the production of goods and services

A measure of how productively resources are used to achieve a companies goals

doing things right

LOCATION

TERM

Effectiveness

DEFINITION

A measure of the appropriateness of the goals an organization is pursuing and the degree to which the organization achieves those goals.

doing the right things

LOCATION

Middle Managers

implement the policies and plans of the top managers above them and supervise and coordinate the activities of the first-line managers below them

First-line managers (supervisors)

Responsible for the daily supervision of non-managerial employees

Three managerial skills

conceptual, human, technical

Conceptual skills needed by managers include

The ability to understand how parts of the organization work together.

The ability to analyze and diagonise a situation and to distinguish between cause and effect

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Human skills needed by managers include

The ability to understand, alter, lead and control the behavior of other individuals and groups

Technical skills needed by managers include

The job-specific knowledge and techniques required to perform an organizational role

core competency

a set of knowledge and skills that make the organization superior to competitors and create value for customers

Building blocks of competitive advantage

efficiency, innovation, quality, responsiveness to customers create a competitive advantage

Scientific Management Theory SMT

popular theory in the early 1900s, concerned primarily with the “best” method and “right” wage for a job

heads of Scientific management theory SMT

Adam Smith; Frederick W. Taylor; Gilbreths

heads of Administrative management theory

Max Weber; Henri Fayol

heads of Behavioral management theory

Mary Parker Follett

Management Science Theory

Emphasizes rigorous quantitative techniques to help managers make maximum use of organizational resources to produce goods and services

What is the global environment?

Set of forces and conditions in the world outside the organization’s boundaries that affect the way it operates and shapes its behavior

-Changes over time
-Presents managers with opportunities and threats

Global organization

An organization that operates and competes in many different countries.
Operating i is uncertain and upredictable
because it is complex and changes constantly.

Task Environment

The set of forces and conditions that originate with suppliers, distributors, customers, and competitors and affect an organization’s ability to obtain inputs and dispose of its outputs because they influence managers daily.

General environment

The wide-ranging global, economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political, and legal forces that affect an organization and its task environment.

Suppliers

individuals and organizations that provide an organization with the input resources it needs to produce goods and services

Input Resources

Human: labor and skills
Materials: food and supplies
Facilities: space and equipment
Operational: money, time, utilities, and information

Global outsourcing

The purchase or production of inputs or final products from overseas suppliers to lower costs and improve product quality or design.

Task Environment includes

includes entities that directly affect a firm on a constant basis and include competitors, suppliers, distributers and customers

Distributors

Organizations that help other organizations sell their goods or services to customers

Distributers threats

Powerful distributors can limit access to markets through its control of customers in those
markets.

Customers

Individuals and groups that buy the goods and services an organization produces

Competitors

companies in the same industry that sell similar products or services to customers

Forces in the global environment*

-the organization
-task environment
-general environment

Competitors
Barriers to entry

Factors that make it difficult and costly for an organization to enter a particular task environment of industry.

barriers to entry

Economies of scale (EOS); Brand loyalty; Government regulations

Economies of scale (EOS)

Economies of scale exist if average costs decrease as the size (scale) of the firm increases.
Cost advantages associated with large operations.

Government regulations

Government policies that create barriers to entry and limit imports of goods from companies abroad.

Michael Porter’s Five Forces Model

analyzes an organization, its position in the marketplace, and how information systems could be used to make it more competitive

The task environment
Possible opportunities and threats

Change in nature, number or type of suppliers (supplier as sole source? Supplier’s
input is key?)

General Environment

composed of dimensions in the broader society that influence an industry and the firms within it

Economic Forces (General Environment)

General economic conditions and trends: unemployment, inflation, interest rates, economic growth. This may affect an organization’s growth.

Technological Forces

outcomes of changes in the technology managers use to design, produce, or distribute goods and services

sociocultural forces

Pressures emanating from the social structure of a country or society or from the national culture

social structure

a pattern of organized relationships among groups of people within a society

National culture

the set of values that a society considers important and the norms of behavior that are approved or sanctioned in that society

Demographic forces

Outcomes of change in, or changing attitudes toward, the characteristics of a population, such as age, gender, ethnic origin, race, sexual orientation, and social class

Political and legal forces

Outcomes of changes in laws and regulations, such as deregulation of industries, privatization of organizations, and increased emphasis on environmental protection.

political and legal forces samples

Deregulation, privatization, and the removal of legal barriers to trade and many others are examples.

Brand loyalty

a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time
Customers’ preference for the products of organizations currently existing in the task
environment.

Globalization

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The set of specific and general forces that work together to integrate and connect economic, political, and social systems across countries,
cultures, or geographical regions so that nations become increasingly independent and similar

Michael Porter’s Five Forces*

Bargaining power of customers, threat of substitutions, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new entrants, rivalry

The Changing Global Environment

In recent years there has been a marked shift toward a more open global environment in which capital flows more freely as people and companies search for new opportunities to create profit and wealth. This has hastened the process of globalization. Globalization is the set of specific and general forces that work together to integrate and connect economic, political, and social systems across countries, cultures, or geographic regions so that nations become increasingly interdependent and similar. The process of globalization has been furthered by declining barriers to international trade and investment and declining barriers of distance and culture.

Global Environment

The set of global forces and conditions that operates beyond an organization’s boundaries but affects a manager’s ability to acquire and utilize resources.

Global Environment eg

Human capital; Financial capital; Resource capital; Political capital

Human capital (changing global environment)

The flow of people around the world
through immigration, migration and emigration.

Resource capital (changing global environment)

The flow of natural resources, parts, and components between companies and countries, such as metals, minerals, lumber, energy, food
productions,microprocessors and
auto parts.

Political capital (changing global environment)

The flow of power and influence around the world using diplomacy, persuasion, aggression and force of arms to protect the right or access of a country, world region, or political bloc to the other forms of capital.

Free-Trade Doctrine

The idea that if each country specializes in the production of the goods and services that it can produce most efficiently, this will make the best use of global resources

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)

Member countries accept the free-trade doctrine with the goal of the removal of barriers to
the free flow of goods, services and capital between countries.

Effects of free trade on managers(the changing global environment)

opened enormous opportunities for managers to expand the market for their goods and services.

Allowed mangers to buy and sell goods and services globally.

Increased intensity of global competition can result to a more dynamic and complex manager job.

National Culture

the set of shared values and beliefs that affects the perceptions, decisions, and behavior of the people from a particular country
National culture shapes individual behavior by specifying appropriate in and inappropriate behavior and interaction with others

building blocks of national culture

Values and Norms

Values:

Ideas of what a society believes to be good, right, desirable or beautiful. Values are more than a abstract concpets. People argue, fight or even die over values such as freedom or dignity.

Norms:

rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members Unwritten, informal codes of conduct that prescribes how people should act in particular situations and are considered important by most members of a group or organization

Individualism

A worldview that values individual freedom and self-expression and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their individual achievements rather than by their social background.

Collectivism

A worldview that values subordination of the individual to the goals of the group and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their contribution to the group.

Power distance

Degree to which societies accept the idea that inequalities in the power and well-being of their citizens are due to differences in individuals’ physical and intellectual capabilities and heritage

Financial capital (changing global environment)

The flow of money capital across world markets through overseas investments, credit, lending
and aid.

Achievement orientation

A worldview that values assertiveness, performance, success, and competition

Nurturing orientation

A worldview that values the quality of life, warm personal friendships, and services and care for the weak.

Uncertainty avoidance

the degree to which societies are willing to tolerate uncertainty and risk

Low uncertainty avoidance

cultures are easygoing, value diversity, and tolerate differences in personal beliefs and actions

High uncertainty avoidance

societies are more rigid and expect high conformity in their citizens’ beliefs and norms of behavior

Long-term orientation

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a worldview that values thrift and persistence in achieving goals

Short-term orientation

A worldview that values personal stability or happiness and living for the present.

Hofstede’s Model

Individualism/collectivism, distance, orientation, avoidance, time orientation

Decision Making Process

the process of making a choice or finding a solution

The process by which managers respond to
opportunities and threats by analyzing options and making determinations about specific organizational goals and course of action.

Decision making is central to being a manager,
and whenever managers engage in planning,
organizing, leading and controlling – their four
principles tasks – they are constantly making
decisions.

THE NATURE OF MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING

Regardless of the specific decision a manager makes, the decision-making process is either
programmed or nonprogrammed

Programmed Decision Making

Routine, virtually automatic decision making that follows established rules or guidelines.
Rules or guidelines to be applied when certain situations occur.

nonprogrammed decision making

Nonroutine decision making that occurs in response to unusual, unpredictable opportunities and threats

Rules do not exist because the situation is unexpected or uncertain and managers lack the information they would need to develop rules to cover it

nonprogrammed decision making includes:

In the absence of decision rules mangers rely on their intuition or their make reasoned judgments
.

intuition

Feelings, beliefs, and hunches that come readily to mind, require little effort and information gathering and result in on-the-spot decisions.

Reasoned judgment

A decision that requires time and effort and results from careful information gathering, generation of alternatives, and evaluation of alternatives.

Classical Model of Decision Making

A prescriptive model of decision making that assumes the decision maker can identify and evaluate all possible alternatives and their consequences and rationally choose the most appropriate course of action.

Optimum decision

the most appropriate decision in light of what managers believe to be the most desirable consequences for the organization

Classical Model of Decision Making

A prescriptive approach – asserting that managers are logical, rational individuals who make decisions that are in the best interests of the organization – that outlines how managers should make decisions; also known as the rational model.

The administrative model of decision making

An approach to decision making that explains why decision making is inherently uncertain and risky and why managers usually make satisfactory rather than optimum decisions.

why information is incomplete

uncertainty and risk, ambiguous information, time constraints and information costs

Bounded Rationality Decision Making

Cognitive limitations that constrain one’s ability to interpret, process and act on information.

Decision made in the context of the environment- Need to gather enough information relevant to the problem context – may not be able to get all info

risk

The degree of probability that the possible outcomes of a particular course of action will occur.

Degree of uncertainty of return on an asset; in business, the likelihood of loss or reduced profit.

uncertainty

Unpredictability.

The probabilities of alternative outcomes cannot be determined and future outcomes are unknown.

Ambiguous Information

information that can be interpreted in multiple and often conflicting ways

satisfying model

Searching for and choosing an acceptable, or satisfactory, response to problems and opportunities, rather than trying to make
the best decision.

Six Steps in Decision Making

  1. Recognize the need for a decision
    2. Generate alternatives
    3. Assess alternatives
    4. Choose among alternatives
    5. Implement the chosen alternative
    6. Learn from feedback

Recognize the need for a decision

Sparked by an event such as environment changes.
Managers must first realize that a decision must be made.

generate alternatives

Managers must develop feasible alternative courses of action.

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If good alternatives are missed, the resulting decision is poor.
It is hard to develop creative alternatives, so managers need to look for new ideas.

Assess alternatives

consider all possible actions that can be taken to respond to the situation- including those that may seem difficult
What are the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative? Managers should specify
criteria, then evaluate.

Choose among alternatives

Rank the various alternatives and make a decision
Tendency is for managers to ignore critical information, even when available

Managers must be sure all the information available is brought to bear on the problem or issue at hand.

Implement Chosen Alternative

Managers must now carry out the alternative
Often a decision is made and not implemented

learn from feedback

Compare what happened to what was expected to happen. Explore why any expectations for the decision were not met. Derive guidelines that will help in future decision making.
Managers should consider what went right and wrong with the decision and learn for the future.
Without feedback, managers do not learn from experience and will repeat the same mistake over.

General criteria for evaluating possible courses of action

Cognitive Biases and Decision Making

Because of cognitive biases managers are caused by systematic errors.
Heuristics, Systematic errors

Heuristics in problem solving

-“rule of thumb”
– a rule that is generally, but not always, true that we can use to make a judgement in a situation

Rules of thumb that simplify decision making.

Systematic errors

errors that people make over and over and that result in poor decision making

Cognitive Biases and Decision Making

Prior hypothesis bias
Representativeness bias
Illusion of control
Escalating commitment

Managers must become aware of biases and their effects, and they must identify their own personal style of making decisions.

prior hypothesis bias

A cognitive bias resulting from the tendency to base decisions on strong prior beliefs even if evidence shows that those beliefs are wrong.

representativeness bias

A cognitive bias resulting from the tendency to generalize inappropriately from a small sample or from a single vivid event or episode.

Illusion of Control Bias

A source of cognitive bias resulting from the tendency to overestimate one’s own ability to control activities and events.

Escalating Commitment Bias

A source of cognitive bias resulting from the tendency to commit additional resources to a project even if evidence shows that the project is failing.

Group Decision Making

Because of the biases important organizational decisions are made by groups or teams of managers rather than by individuals.

Group Decision Making Advantages

Choices less likely to fall victim to biases.
Able to drawn on the combined skills, competencies and accumulated knowledge of
group members.
Improve ability to generate feasible alternatives.
Manager agree to cooperate
Higher probability that the implementation is successful.

Group decision making Disadvantages

Slow.
To achieve cooperation can be
difficult, due to different
interests and preferences.
Can be undermined by biases.

Groupthink

A pattern of faulty and biased decision making that occurs in groups whose members strive for agreement among themselves at the expense of accurately accessing information relevant to a
decision.

Usually occurs when group members rally around a central manager’s idea, and become blindly commit to the idea without considering alternatives. The group’s influence tends to convince each member that the idea must go forward

Devil’s advocacy and dialectical inquiry

devil’s advocacy:
present solution, critique solution, reassess solution (accept, modify, reject)

dialectical inquiry:
present two solutions, debate between two solutions, reassess (accept a or b, combine a and b)

Organizational learning

The process through which managers seek to improve employees’ desire and ability to understand and manage the organization and its task environment.

Learning organization (management sight)

An organization in which managers try to maximize the ability of individuals and groups to think and behave creatively and thus maximize the potential for organizational learning to take place.

learning organization (definition)

An organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.

Senge’s five principles for creating a learning organization

develop personal mastery
build complex challenging mental models
promote team learning
build shared vision
encourage systems thinking

creativity

The ability to make or bring a new concept or idea into existence; marked by the ability or power to create.

individual creativity

Creativity results when employees have an opportunity to experiment, to take risk, and to make mistakes and learn from them

Group Creativity

Group-solving techniques that promote creative ideas and innovative solutions can be used:
brainstorming, nominal group technique
and the Delphi technique.

brainstorming and nominal group technique

A decision-making technique in which group members write down ideas and solutions, read their suggestions to the whole group, and
discuss and then rank the alternatives.

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Useful when an issue is controversial and
when different managers might be expected to champion different courses of action.

Delphi Technique

A decision-making technique in which group members do not meet face-to-face but respond in writing to questions posed by the group leader.

Written approach to creative problem solving.
Group leader writes a statement of the problem to which managers respond.

Questionnaire is sent to managers to generate solutions.

Team of managers summarizes the responses and results are sent back to the participants.

Process is repeated until a consensus is reached.

Entrepreneur

An individual who notices opportunities and decides how to mobilize the resources necessary to produce new and improved goods and services.

social entrepreneur

An individual who pursues initiatives and opportunities and mobilizes resources to address social problems and needs in order to improve society and well-being through creative solutions.

Characteristics of entrepreneurs

open to experience:
they are original thinkers and take risks
internal locus of control:
they take responsibility for their own actions
high self-esteem:
they feel competent and capable.
high need for achievement
they have a strong desire to perform challenging tasks and meet high personal standards of excellence.

Organizational Hierarchy R

Different approaches to selection are generally taken for filling positions at different levels in the organization

Intrapreneur

A manager, scientist, or researcher who works inside an organization and notices opportunities to develop new or improved products and better ways to make them.

Entrepreneurship and management

Frequently, founding entrepreneur lacks the skills, patience, and experience to engage in the difficult and challenging work of management

product champion

A manager who takes “ownership” of a project and provides the leadership and vision that take a product from the idea stage to the final customer.

Skunkworks

a group of intrapreneurs who are deliberately separated from the normal operation of an organization to encourage them to devote all their attention to developing new products

Employee Selection R

Goal is to match people with jobs and the company

properly done, selection can lead to improved productivity

Mismatches (under- or over-qualified persons) will likely lead to ineffective performance and turnover

Selection R

Process of choosing the individual best suited for particular position and organization from a group of applicants
Goal is to properly match people with jobs and organization
Selecting wrong person for any job can be costly

Selection Process Steps R

  1. screening applications and resumes
    2. testing and reviewing work samples
    3. interviewing candidates
    4. checking references and background
    5. making a selection

Preliminary Screening R

Removes obviously unqualified individuals
Benefit: Applicant may be qualified for another position with the firm

in employee selection, a review to eliminate those who obviously do not meet the position’s requirements

Review of Applications R

-Essential information is included and presented in a standardized format
-Application form must reflect firm’s informational needs and EEO requirements.
-Preprinted statements are usually included:
Certifies that information provided is accurate
Should state position is employment at will
Gives permission for background check

Review of resumes R

Résumé: Goal-directed summary of a person’s experience, education, and training developed for use in the selection process

Professional/managerial applicants often begin selection process by submitting résumé

Concept of relevancy is crucial in selling the applicant to the company

Résumés and Keywords R

Most large companies now use automated tracking systems

Résumés deviating from required style are ignored

Keywords: Job-related words or phrases used to search databases

Keyword résumé: Adequate description of job seeker’s characteristics and industry-specific experience using keyword terms

Selection Tests R

Reliable and accurate means of selecting qualified candidates

Cost is small in comparison

Identify attitudes and job-related skills that interviews cannot recognize

Potential Problems of Using Selection Tests R

Can do versus will do
Test anxiety
Legal liabilities

Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests 1 R

Standardization: Uniformity of procedures and conditions of administering test

Objectivity: Everyone scoring a test obtains same results

Norms: Frame of reference for comparing applicant’s performance with that of others

Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests 2 R

Reliability: Provides consistent results

Validity: Measures what it is supposed to measure (basic requirement)

Requirement for job relatedness: Must not have adverse impact on minorities, females, and individuals with backgrounds or characteristics protected under law

Test Validation Approaches R

Criterion-related validity: Comparing scores on selection tests to some aspect of job performance

Content validity: Includes certain tasks actually required by job

Construct validity: Measures certain traits or qualities important in performing job

employment tests 1 R

Achievement test: A test of current knowledge and skills

Cognitive Ability test: A test that determines general reasoning ability, memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, and numerical ability

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Aptitude test: A test of how well a person can learn or acquire skills or abilities

employment tests 2 R

Cognitive ability
Psychomotor abilities
Personality
Job knowledge
Work-sample
Unique types
genetic
graphoanalysis
polygraphs

Cognitive Ability Tests R

Measures individual’s ability to learn, as well as to perform a job

Form of IQ test

Helpful in identifying job candidates who have extensive knowledge bases

Psychomotor Abilities Tests R

Strength
Coordination
Dexterity
Miniaturization in assembly operations

personality tests R

Self-reported measure of:
Traits
Temperaments
Dispositions
Tap into softer areas, such as leadership, teamwork, and personal assertiveness

measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes

Job Knowledge Tests R

Tests designed to measure a candidate’s knowledge of the duties of the job for which he or she is applying

Are commercially available

work sample testing R

Perform set of tasks representative of job
Job related
Produces high validity
Reduces adverse impact
More acceptable to applicants

Online Assessment R

Organizations increasingly are using the Internet to test applicants
Makes it faster and easier to process applications
Can check job applicants on their alleged
technical abilities

Assessment Centers R

Require candidates to perform activities similar to those on the job
Examples:
In-basket exercises
Management games
Leaderless discussion groups
Mock interviews

Unique Forms of Testing—Genetic Testing R

Tests performed to identify predisposition to inherited diseases, including cancer, heart disease, neurological disorders, and congenital diseases

Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008—Designed to prohibit improper use of genetic information in health insurance and employment

Unique Forms of Testing—Graphoanalysis R

Many people view handwriting analysis in same context as psychic readings or astrology

In Europe, many employers use it to screen and place job applicants

Unique Forms of Testing—
Polygraph Tests R

Can confirm or refute application information

Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 severely limited use in private sector

employment interview R

Goal-oriented conversation where interviewer and applicant exchange information

Continues to be primary method used to evaluate applicants

At this point, candidates are assumed to be qualified

Interview Planning R

Physical location of the interview should be both pleasant and private
Develop a job profile based on job description/specification
Questions should be prepared that relate to the qualities needed

Content of the Interview R

Seek additional job-related information and examples of past job-related behaviors:
Occupational experience
Academic achievement
Interpersonal skills
Personal qualities

Provide information about:
Company
Job
Expectations

Types of Interviews R

structured and unstructured

Behavioral
Situational

unstructured interview R

An interview in which the question-answer sequence is spontaneous, open-ended, and flexible.

Encourages applicant to do much of the talking
Is often time consuming
Potential legal issues

structured interview R

involves asking each applicant the same job-related questions and comparing their responses to a standardized set of answers

Increases reliability and accuracy by reducing subjectivity and inconsistency of unstructured interviews

behavioral interview R

Behavioral questions prompt applicants to relate actual incidents relevant to target job
Look for three main things:
Description of a challenging situation
What the candidate did about it
Measurable results
Example: Describe a situation where you were responsible for motivating others

situational interview R

a structured interview in which the interviewer describes a situation likely to arise on the job, then asks the candidate what he or she would do in that situation

Example: One of your employees has shown a significant decline in productivity. How would you handle it?

Methods of Interviewing 1 R

One-on-one interview: Applicant meets one-on-one with interviewer

Group interview: Several applicants interact in presence of one or more interviewers

Board interview: Several firm representatives interview candidate at same time

Multiple interviews: Applicants typically interviewed one-on-one by peers, subordinates, and supervisors

Methods of Interviewing 2 R

Video Interview: Involves an applicant being interviewed with both individuals being in different locations
Stress interview: Interviewer intentionally creates anxiety

Realistic Job Previews R

Provide both positive and negative job information to applicant in unbiased manner

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Convey information about tasks person would perform and behavior required to fit into organization’s culture

Potential Interviewing Problems R

Inappropriate questions
Permitting non-job-related information
Interviewer bias
Interviewer domination
Lack of training
Nonverbal communication

inappropriate questions R

Basic rule: Ask only job-related questions

Interview is a “test,” subject to same validity requirements as any other step in the selection process

Historically, interview has been more vulnerable to charges of discrimination than any other tool used in the selection process

Permitting Non-Job-Related Information R

If candidate begins volunteering personal information not related to job, interviewer should steer conversation back on course

Engaging in friendly chitchat with candidates might be pleasant

In our litigious society, it may be the most dangerous thing interviewer can do

interviewer bias 1 R

Interviewer makes assumptions about interviewee which may be incorrect and lets these biases influence the selection decision

Stereotyping bias: Occurs when interviewer assumes that applicant has certain traits because they are members of a certain class

Positive halo bias: Occurs when interviewer generalizes one positive impression feature of the candidate

interviewer bias 2 R

Horn error bias: Occurs where interviewer’s first impression of candidate creates a negative first impression that exists throughout interview

Contrast bias: Occurs when, for example, interviewer meets with several poorly qualified applicants and then confronts a mediocre candidate

Premature judgment bias: Interviewer makes judgment about candidates in first few minutes of interview

Interview illusion bias: Belief in ability was exaggerated

Interviewer Domination R

Relevant information must flow both ways

Interviewers must learn to be good listeners as well as suppliers of information

Lack of training R

Interview is much more than carrying on conversation with another person

Expense of training employees in interviewing skills can be easily justified

What does “Tell me about yourself” mean to a trained interviewer?

nonverbal communication R

Body language is nonverbal communication in which physical actions, such as gestures and facial expressions, convey thoughts and emotions

Avoid sending inappropriate or unintended nonverbal signals

concluding the interview R

When interviewer has obtained necessary information and answered applicant’s questions, he or she should conclude the interview

Tell applicant he or she will be notified of the selection decision shortly

Management must then determine whether candidate is suitable for the open position and organization

Pre-Employment Screening: Background Checks R

Determine accuracy of information submitted or determine if vital information was not submitted

Principal reason is to hire better workers
Background investigations involve obtaining data from various sources

Intensity of background investigations depends on the nature of the open position

Continuous Background Investigation R

Some employers are screening their employees on an ongoing basis

Financial devastation, marital collapse, or a medical crisis can send a person with a clean record over the edge

Continuous Background Investigation R

Background Investigation with Social Networking R

Increasingly being used to conduct background investigations

Use an applicant’s Facebook, LinkedIn, and postings made on an industry blog to find out about individuals they are considering hiring

Hiring Standards to Avoid R

Some standards used in background investigation have potential to violate equal employment opportunity and affirmative action laws
When HR management practices eliminate substantial numbers of minority or women applicants (prima facie evidence), the burden of proof is on the employer to show that the practice is job related
Examples: Criminal conviction and credit checks

Reference Checks R

Information from individuals who know applicant
Provide additional insight into information furnished by applicant
Verify accuracy of information
Possible flaw: Virtually everyone can name three or four individuals willing to make favorable statements
Many state laws shield employers from liability for harm to an ex-employee based on job references.
Two schools of thought:
Don’t tell them anything
Honesty is the best policy

Negligent Hiring R

Liability company incurs when it fails to conduct reasonable investigation of applicant’s background, and then assigns potentially dangerous person to position where he or she can inflict harm
Risk of harm to third parties requires a higher standard of care

Selection Decision R

Most critical step
Person whose qualifications most closely conform to requirements of open position and organization should be selected

Medical Examination R

Americans with Disabilities Act does not prohibit pre-employment medical examinations
Determines point at which they may be administered during selection process
Determines whether applicant is physically capable of performing the work

Notification to Candidates R

Results should be made known to candidates as soon as possible
Delay may result in firm losing prime candidate
Unsuccessful candidates should also be promptly notified

Environmental Factors Affecting the Selection Process R

Other HR functions
Legal considerations
Decision-making speed
Organizational hierarchy
Applicant pool
Type of organization
Probationary period
Organizational fit

Legal Considerations R

Greatly influenced by legislation, executive orders, and court decisions
Guiding principle: Why am I asking this question?
If information is job related, usually asking for the information is appropriate

Speed of Decision Making R

Time available to make the selection decision can have major effect on selection process
Conditions also can impact the needed speed of decision making

Applicant Pool and Selection Ratio R

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Applicant pool: Number of qualified applicants recruited for a particular job
Selection ratio: Number of people hired for a particular job compared to number of people in the applicant pool

Type of Organization R

Private sector: Screen applicants with regard to how they can help achieve profit goals
Government civil service systems: Identify qualified applicants through competitive examinations
Not-for-profit organizations: Applicants must be qualified and dedicated to work

Probationary Period R

Period that permits evaluating an employee’s ability based upon performance
May be a substitute for certain phases of the selection process
Must be job related

Organizational Fit R

Management’s perception of the degree to which the prospective employee will fit in with the firm’s culture or value system
Poor fit—The chemistry was just not right

Selection Technology—
Applicant Tracking Systems R

Software application designed to help an enterprise select employees more efficiently
Permits managers to oversee the entire selection process
Compile job applications electronically
Quickly amass candidates
Set up interviews
Get new hires on board

Selection Technology:
Candidate Relationship Management R

Help manage potential and actual applicants in an organized manner
Capability to search the Internet, and then adds and catalogues resumes and other information to the database
Ability to link with other applicant tracking systems and any Web site

Selection in the Global Environment R

Country’s culture plays a major role in determining whether an executive will be successful or not
Majority of firms are deeply rooted in the culture of their home countries

Planning

Identifying and selecting appropriate goals and courses of action; one of the four principal tasks of management.

strategy

A cluster of decisions about what goals to pursue, what actions to take, and how to use resources to achieve goals.

Mission Statement

A broad declaration of an organization’s purpose that identifies the organization’s products and customers and distinguishes the organization from its competitors.

Three Steps in Planning

  1. determining the organization’s mission and goals
    2. formulating strategy
    3. implementing strategy

To perform the planning task, managers (3):

(1) Establish and discover where an organization is at the present time;
(2) Determine where it should be in the future, its desired future state;
(3) Decide how to move it forward to reach that future state.

Why planning is important

  1. Necessary to give the organization a sense of direction and purpose.
    2. Planning is a useful way of getting managers to participate in decision making about the appropriate goals and strategies for an organization.
    3. A plan helps coordinate managers of the different functions and divisions of an organization to ensure that they all pull in the same direction and work to achieve its desired future state.
    4. A plan can be used as a device for controlling managers within an organization.

An effective plan should have four qualities:

Unity
Continuity
Accuracy
Flexibility

Unity

means that at any time only one central, guiding plan is put into operation to achieve an organizational goal.

Continuity

means that planning is an ongoing process in which managers build and refine previous plans and continually modify plans at all levels – corporate, business, and functional – so they fit together in one broad framework

Accuracy

means that mangers need to make every attempt to collect and use all available information in the planning process.

Flexibility

the planning process should be flexible enough so plans can be altered and changed if the situation changes; managers must not be bound to a static plan.

division

business unit that has its own set of managers and departments and competes in a distinct industry.

Divisional managers

managers who control the planning and strategy for their particular divisions or unit.

Levels and Types of Planning

Corporate Level
Goal setting: Corporate Mission and Goals
Strategy Formulation: Corporate Level Strategy
Strategy Implementation: Design of Corporate structure control

Business Level
Goal setting Divisional Goals
Strategy Formulation: Business Level Strategy
Strategy Implementation: Design of Business Unit Structure Control

Functional Level
Goal setting: Functional Goals
Strategy Formulation: Functional Level Strategy
Strategy Implementation: Design of Functional structure Control

Corporate-level plan

Top management’s decisions pertaining to the organization’s mission, overall strategy, and structure.

Provides a framework for all other planning.

corporate level strategy

A plan that indicates in which industries and national markets an organization intends to compete.

Business-Level Plan

Divisional managers’ decisions pertaining to divisions’ long-term goals, overall strategy, and structure.

business level strategy

a plan that indicates how a division intends to compete against its rivals in an industry

Functional-Level Plan

Functional managers’ decisions pertaining to the goals that they propose to pursue to help the division attain its business-level goals

Functional Strategy

A plan of action to improve the ability of each of an organization’s functions to perform its task-specific activities in ways that add value to an organization’s goods and services.

Time Horizons of Plans

Long-term plans are usually 5 years or more.
Intermediate-term plans are 1 to 5 years.
Short-term plans are less than 1 year.

standing plans

plans developed for activities that occur repeatedly over a period of time

Are used in situations in which programmed decision making is appropriate.

single-use plans

plans that are developed to achieve a set of goals that are unlikely to be repeated in the future

Polices

guidelines used in making consistent decisions

general guides to action

Rules (planning)

formal written instructions that specify actions to be taken under different circumstances to achieve specific goals

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formal written specific guides to action

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

specify an exact series of action to follow

Scenario Planning (Contingency Planning)

The generation of multiple forecasts of future conditions followed by an analysis of how to effectively respond to those conditions.

Defining the Business

Who are our customers?
What customer needs are being satisfied?
How are we satisfying customer needs?

Establishing Major Goals

Provides the organization with a sense of direction
Stretches the organization to higher levels of performance.
Goals must be challenging but realistic with a definite period in which they are to be achieved.

Formulating strategy

Step 1: Setting Strategic Goals
Step 2: Analyzing the Organization and the Environment: SWOT Analysis
Step 3: Matching the Organization and Its Environment

The development of a set of corporate, business and functional strategies that allow an organization to accomplish its mission and achieve it goals.

SWOT analysis

a planning tool used to analyze an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats

corporate level strategy

A plan of action to manage the growth and development of an organization so as to maximize its long-run ability to create value

business level strategy

A plan of action to take advantage of favorable opportunities and find ways to counter threats so as to compete effectively in an industry

Functional-level strategy

A plan of action to improve the ability of each of an organization’s functions to perform its task-specific activities in ways that add value to an organization’s goods and services.

Michael Porter’s Five Forces Model

Buyer power
Supplier power
Threat of substitute products or services
Threat of new entrants
Rivalry among existing competitors

Business Level Strategies

low-cost leadership, differentiation and focus.

low-cost strategy

Driving the organization’s costs down below the costs of its rivals.

differentiation strategy

Distinguishing an organization’s products from the products of competitors on dimensions such as product design, quality, or after-sales service.

stuck in the middle

Attempting to simultaneously pursue both a low cost strategy and a differentiation strategy
Difficult to achieve low cost with the added costs of differentiation

focused low-cost strategy

Serving only one segment of the overall market and trying to be the lowest-cost organization serving that segment.

focused differentiation strategy

serving only one segment of the overall market and trying to be the most differentiated organization serving that segment

Principal Corporate-Level Strategies

  1. concentration on a single industry
    2. vertical integration
    3. diversification
    4. international expansion

Concentration in single industry

Organization uses its functional skills to develop new kinds of products or expand its locations.

Appropriate when managers see the need to reduce the size of their organizations to increase performance.

Vertical Integration

A strategy that involves a company expanding its business operations either backward into a new industry that produces inputs (backward vertical integration) or forward into a new industry that uses, distributes, or sells the company’s products
(forward vertical integration).

Diversification

A strategy of expanding a company’s operations into a new industry in order to produce new kinds of valuable goods or services.

related diversification

Strategy of entering a new industry and establishing a new business division that is linked to a company’s existing divisions because they share resources that will improve the competitive position.

unrelated diversification

Firms establish divisions or buy companies in new
industries that are not linked to their current business or industry.

Portfolio strategy: Apportioning resources among divisions to increase returns or spread risks.

Principal corporate-level strategies

  1. concentration on a single industry
    2. vertical integration
    3. diversification
    4. international expansion

International Expansion

Ask the fundamental question of international business: “To what extent do we customize our products for different national cultures, versus standardizing our products worldwide for global efficiency?”

Global Strategy

Undertaking very little customization to suit the specific needs of customers in different countries.

Standardization provides for lower production cost.

Ignores national differences that local competitors can address to their advantage.

Multidomestic strategy

customizing products and marketing strategies to specific national conditions

related diversification

a growth strategy whereby the current target market and/or marketing mix shares something in common with the new opportunity

Synergy

1 + 1 = 3

Possible when the value created by two divisions cooperating is greater than the value that would be created if the two divisions operated separately and independently

Four Ways to Expand Internationally

  1. Importing and exporting
    2. Licensing and franchising
    3. Strategic alliances, joint ventures
    4. Wholly owned foreign subsidiary

Exporting

producing goods in one country and selling them in another

Importing

selling at home products that are made abroad

Licensing

allowing a foreign organization to take charge of manufacturing and distributing a product in its country or world region in return for a negotiated fee

Franchising

selling to a foreign organization the rights to use a brand name and operating know-how in return for a lump-sum payment and a share of the profits

strategic alliance

managers pool resources with those of a foreign company

Organizations agree to share risk and reward

joint venture (strategic alliance)

with a foreign company to share the risks and rewards of starting a new enterprise together in a foreign country

wholly owned foreign subsidiary

managers invest in establishing production operations in a foreign country independent of any local direct involvement

Planning and implementing strategy

 

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  1. Allocate implementation responsibility to the appropriate individuals or groups.
    2. Draft detailed action plans for implementation.
    3. Establish a timetable for implementation
    4. Allocate appropriate resources
    5. Hold specific groups or individuals responsible for the attainment of corporate, divisional, and functional goals

Organizational architecture

The organizational structure, control systems, culture, and human resource management systems that together determine how efficiently and effectively organizational resources are used.

Organizing

a management function that includes designing the structure of the organization and creating conditions and systems in which everyone and everything work together to achieve the organization’s goals and objectives

organizational structure

a formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates organizational members so they work together to achieve organizational goals

organizational design

The process by which managers make specific organizing choices that result in a particular kind of organizational structure.

factors affecting organizational structure

organizational environment, strategy, technology, human resources

organizational environment

the set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization’s boundaries but affect a manager’s ability to acquire and utilize resources

organizational environment and Organizational Structure

The quicker the environment changes, the more problems face managers.

Structure must be more flexible (i.e., decentralized authority) when environmental change is rapid.

In contrast, if the external environment is stable, resources are readily available, and uncertainty is low, then less coordination and communication among people and functions are needed to obtain resources.

Strategy and Organizational Structure

Different strategies require the use of different structures.

A differentiation strategy needs a flexible structure,
low cost strategy may need a more formal structure.

Increased vertical integration or diversification also requires a more flexible structure.

Technology and Organizational Structure

The combination of (1) skills, (2) knowledge, (3) machines and (4) computers are used to design, make and distribute goods and services.

As a rule, the more complicated the technology that an organization uses, the more difficult it is to regulate or control it because more unexpected even can arise.

Technology can be measured by

Technology can be measured by:

Task variety is the number of new or unexpected
problems or situations that a person or function encounters in performing tasks or jobs.

Task analyzability is the degree to which programmed solutions are available to people or functions to solve the problems they encounter.

High task variety and low analyzability present many unique problems to managers.

Flexible structure works best in these conditions.

Low task variety and high analyzability allow managers to rely on established procedures.

Human resources and Organizational Structure

The more highly skilled its workforce, and the greater the number of employees who work together in groups or teams, the more likely an organization is to use a flexible, decentralized structure and a professional culture based on
values and norms that foster employee autonomy and self-control.

Flexible structures, characterized by decentralized authority and empowered employees, are well suited to the needs of highly skilled people.

Designing Organizational Structure

  1. How to group tasks into individual jobs
    2. How to group jobs into functions and divisions
    3. How to allocate authority and coordinate functions and divisions

Grouping tasks into jobs: Job Design

The process by which managers decide how to divide tasks into specific jobs

The appropriate division of labor results in an effective and efficient workforce.

job simplification

the process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs

job enlargement

increasing the number of different tasks in a given job by changing the division of labor

job enrichment

increasing the number of tasks in a particular job and giving workers the authority and control to make meaningful decisions about their work

Job Enrichment factors

(1) Empowering workers to experiment to find new or better ways of doing the job.
(2) Encouraging workers to develop new skills.
(3) Allowing workers to decide how to do the work and giving them the responsibility for deciding how to respond to unexpected
situations.
(4) Allowing workers to monitor and measure their own performance.

Job Characteristics Model

skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback

skill variety

the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities

task identity

the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work

task significance

the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people

autonomy

independence

Employee has freedom to schedule tasks and carry them out

Feedback

the response to a message that a receiver sends back to a source

Worker gets direct information about how well the job is done

Designing organizational structure: Grouping jobs into functions and divisions:

leads to functional structure

functional structure

An organizational structure composed of all the departments that an organization requires to produce its goods or services.

function

Group of people, working together, who possess similar skills or use the same kind of knowledge, tools, or techniques to perform their jobs.

Functional Structure

  • Pooling of specialists enhances coordination and control within functions
    •Centralized decision making with a cross-functional perspective
    •Facilitates career paths in specialized areas

Functional Structure Advantages

Encourages learning from others doing similar jobs.
Easy for managers to monitor and evaluate workers.
Allows managers to create the set of functions they need in order to scan and monitor the competitive environment

Functional Structure Disadvantages

Difficult for departments to communicate with others.
Preoccupation with own department and losing sight of organizational goals.

Types of Divisional Structures

Product
Market
Geographical

Product, market and geographical structures

 

 

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An organizational structure composed of separate business units within which are the functions that work together to produce a specific product for a specific customer

Product Structure

An organizational structure in which each product line or business is handled by a self-contained division.

product structure Advantages

Allows functional managers to specialize in one product area
Division managers become experts in their area
Removes need for direct supervision of division by corporate managers
Divisional management improves the use of resources

Global Product Structure

Each product division, not the country or regional managers, takes responsibility for deciding where to manufacture its products and how to market them in foreign countries

Geographic Structure

An organizational structure in which each region of a country or area of the world is served by a self-contained division.

Divisions are broken down by geographic location

global geographic structure

Managers locate different divisions in each of the world regions where the organization operates

Generally, occurs when managers are pursuing a multi-domestic strategy.

market structure

An organizational structure in which each kind of customer is served by a self-contained division; also called customer structure.

Market Structure Advantage

Allows managers to be responsive to the needs of their customers and act flexibly in making decisions in response to customers’ changing needs

matrix structure

an organization combines functional and divisional chains of command in a grid so that there are two command structures-vertical and horizontal

Matrix Structure Advantages

-Increases market responsiveness, collaboration & synergies
-Allows more efficient utilization of resources
-Improves flexibility, coordination & communication
-Increases professional development

Matrix Structure Disadvantages

Creates additional organizational complexity
– Can slow decision-making
– Performance appraisals more difficult
– Increases admin costs

Difficult to implement
– Employees have trouble reconciling goals
– Multiple supervisors

product team structure

An organizational structure in which employees are permanently assigned to a cross-functional team and report only to the product team manager or to one of his or her direct subordinates.

authority

Coordinating functions and divisions

the power or right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience.

The power to hold people accountable for their actions and to make decisions concerning the use of organizational resources

hierarchy of authority

Coordinating functions and divisions

An organization’s chain of command, specifying the relative authority of each manager

span of control

Coordinating functions and divisions

the number of subordinates who report directly to a manager

line manager

Coordinating functions and divisions

someone in the direct line or chain of command who has formal authority over people and resources at lower levels

staff managers

Coordinating functions and divisions

use special technical expertise to advise and support line workers

Someone responsible for managing a specialist
function, such as finance or marketing.

minimum chain of command

Coordinating functions and divisions

top managers should always construct a hierarchy with the fewest levels of authority necessary to efficiently and effectively use organizational resources

Tall structures

have narrow spans of control and many hierarchical levels

Tall structures Disadvantages

As hierarchy levels increase, communication gets difficult creating delays in the time being taken to implement decisions.

Communications can also become distorted as it is repeated through the firm.

Can become expensive.

Flat structures

have wide spans of control and few hierarchical levels

Flat structures situation

Structure results in quick communications but can lead to overworked managers

decentralizing authority

giving lower-level managers and non-managerial employees the right to make important decisions about how to use organizational resources

Works best in dynamic, highly competitive environment.

Teams may begin to pursue their own goals at the expense of organizational goals

Can result in a lack of communication among divisions

Centralizing authority

exists in an organization when all or most decisions and orders come from a centralized source, usually the members from the top levels of the organizational structure.

Stable environment favor centralization of authority

Managers should carefully evaluate:

Do the organization have the right number of middle managers?

Can the structure be altered to reduce levels?

Integration and coordinating mechanisms

liasion role
Task forces
Cross functional teams
Integrating roles and departments

liasion role

the interpersonal role managers play when they deal with people outside their units

task force

a temporary team or committee formed to solve a specific short-term problem involving several departments

cross-functional team

a team composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization

integrating roles and departments

senior managers provide members of cross-functional team with relevant information from other teams and from other divisions

organizational culture

The shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, and norms that influence how members of an organization relate to one another and cooperate to achieve organizational goals.

culture is influenced by

org. ethics
characteristic of org. members
employment relationship
organizational structure

Organizational ethics

The moral values, beliefs, and rules that establish the appropriate way for an organization and its members to deal with each other and with people outside the organization.

Adaptive cultures

values and norms help an organization to build momentum and to grow and change as needed to achieve its goals and be effective

Inert cultures

Those that lead to values and norms that fail to motivate or inspire employees
Lead to stagnation and often failure over time

 

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